Voiced alveolar lateral affricate

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Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
d͡ɮ
λ
IPA number 104 (149)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d​͡​ɮ
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+0361 U+026E
Sound

The voiced alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨d͡ɮ⟩ (often simplified to ⟨⟩).

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Voiced alveolar lateral affricates are rare. Sandawe has been transcribed with [dɮ], but the sound is more post-alveolar or palatal than alveolar. Consonants written dl in Athabaskan and Wakashan languages are either tenuis affricates, [t͜ɬ] (perhaps slightly voiced allophonically), or have an approximant release, [tˡ] or [dˡ]. In Montana Salish, /l/ may be prestopped, depending on context, in which case it may be realized as [ᵈl] or as an affricate [ᵈɮ̤].[1] In the Nguni languages [d͡ɮ] occurs after nasals: /nɮ̤/ is pronounced [nd͡ɮ̤], with an epenthetic stop, in at least Xhosa[2] and Zulu.[3]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Montana Salish p̓əllič̓č [pʼəd͡ɮɮít͡ʃʼt͡ʃ] 'turned over' Positional allophone of /l/
Xhosa indlovu [ind͡ɮ̤ɔːv̤u][missing tone] 'elephant' Allophone of /ɮ̤/ after /n/

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flemming, Ladefoged & Thomason (1994) "Phonetic structures of Montana Salish", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 87: 7
  2. ^ Scarraffiotti (2011) Parlons Xhosa p. 13
  3. ^ Rycroft & Ngcobo (1979) Say it in Zulu, p. 6