Voiced alveolar lateral affricate

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Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
IPA Number104 (149)
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ɮ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+026E

The voiced alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is d͡ɮ (often simplified to ).


Features of the voiced alveolar lateral affricate:


Voiced alveolar lateral affricates are rare. Sandawe has been transcribed with [dɮ], but the sound is more post-alveolar or palatal than alveolar. Consonants written dl in Athabaskan and Wakashan languages are either tenuis affricates, [t͜ɬ] (perhaps slightly voiced allophonically), or have a lateral release, [tˡ] or [dˡ]. In Montana Salish, /l/ may be prestopped, depending on context, in which case it may be realized as [ᵈl] or as an affricate [ᵈɮ̤].[1] In the Nguni languages [d͡ɮ] occurs after nasals: /nɮ̤/ is pronounced [nd͡ɮ̤], with an epenthetic stop, in at least Xhosa[2] and Zulu.[3]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Avá-Canoeiro[4] Tocantins[4] [ˌtaːˈpid͡ɮɐ] 'Tapirus terrestris' Possible realisation of /l/. In the speech of people aged 40 to 80 years, the consonant is in free variation with [dl], [dʎ], [ʎ], [ɖ], [ɮ] and [l].[4]
Cherokee[5] ᏜᎺᎭ dlameha [d͡ɮameha][missing stress] 'bat' (mammal) See Cherokee phonology
Deg Xinag[6] sichidl [sət͡ʃʰəd͡ɮ] 'my younger brother' Syllable-final realization of /t͡ɬ/.[6]
Montana Salish p̓əllič̓č [pʼəd͡ɮɮít͡ʃʼt͡ʃ] 'turned over' Positional allophone of /l/
Xhosa indlovu [ind͡ɮ̤ɔːv̤u][missing tone] 'elephant' Allophone of /ɮ̤/ after /n/
Pa Na[7] [d͡ɮau˩˧] 'deep'


  1. ^ Flemming, Ladefoged & Thomason (1994). "Phonetic structures of Montana Salish". UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics. 87 (7).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Scarraffiotti (2011) Parlons Xhosa p. 13
  3. ^ Rycroft & Ngcobo (1979) Say it in Zulu, p. 6
  4. ^ a b c Silva (2015:45)
  5. ^ Uchihara, Hiroto (2013). Tone and Accent in Oklahoma Cherokee (PDF) (Ph.D. dissertation). Buffalo, State University of New York. p. 12.
  6. ^ a b Hargus, Sharon (2009). Vowel quality and duration in Yukon Deg Xinag (PDF). Seattle, University of Washington. p. 2.
  7. ^ Chen, Qiguang [陈其光] (2001), A Brief Introduction of Bana Language [巴那语概况], Minzu Yuwen


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