Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
|Voiced alveolar lateral affricate|
|IPA Number||104 (149)|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0064 U+0361 U+026E|
Features of the voiced alveolar lateral affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Voiced alveolar lateral affricates are rare. Sandawe has been transcribed with [dɮ], but the sound is more post-alveolar or palatal than alveolar. Consonants written dl in Athabaskan and Wakashan languages are either tenuis affricates, [t͜ɬ] (perhaps slightly voiced allophonically), or have an approximant release, [tˡ] or [dˡ]. In Montana Salish, /l/ may be prestopped, depending on context, in which case it may be realized as [ᵈl] or as an affricate [ᵈɮ̤]. In the Nguni languages [d͡ɮ] occurs after nasals: /nɮ̤/ is pronounced [nd͡ɮ̤], with an epenthetic stop, in at least Xhosa and Zulu.
|Cherokee||ᏜᎺᎭ dlameha||[d͡ɮameha][missing stress]||'bat' (mammal)||See Cherokee phonology|
|Deg Xinag||sichidl||[sət͡ʃʰəd͡ɮ]||'my younger brother'||Syllable-final realization of /t͡ɬ/.|
|Montana Salish||p̓əllič̓č||[pʼəd͡ɮɮít͡ʃʼt͡ʃ]||'turned over'||Positional allophone of /l/|
|Xhosa||indlovu||[ind͡ɮ̤ɔːv̤u][missing tone]||'elephant'||Allophone of /ɮ̤/ after /n/|
- Flemming, Ladefoged & Thomason (1994). "Phonetic structures of Montana Salish". UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics. 87 (7).CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Scarraffiotti (2011) Parlons Xhosa p. 13
- Rycroft & Ngcobo (1979) Say it in Zulu, p. 6
- Uchihara, Hiroto (2013). Tone and Accent in Oklahoma Cherokee (PDF) (Ph.D. dissertation). Buffalo, State University of New York. p. 12.
- Hargus, Sharon (2009). Vowel quality and duration in Yukon Deg Xinag (PDF). Seattle, University of Washington. p. 2.
- Chen, Qiguang [陈其光] (2001), A Brief Introduction of Bana Language [巴那语概况], Minzu Yuwen
- List of languages with [dɮ] on PHOIBLE