Voiced dental and alveolar lateral flaps

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Voiced alveolar lateral flap
IPA Number181
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɺ
Unicode (hex)U+027A
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)

The voiced alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɺ, a fusion of a rotated lowercase letter ⟨r⟩ with a letter ⟨l⟩. Approved in 1928, the symbol represented a sound intermediate between [d] and [l][1][2] or between [r] and [l][3][4] until 1979 when its value was redefined as an alveolar lateral flap.[5]

Some languages that are described as having a lateral flap actually have a flap that is indeterminate with respect to centrality, and may surface as either central or lateral, either in free variation or allophonically depending on surrounding vowels and consonants.[6]


Features of the voiced alveolar lateral flap:



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chaga[7] [example needed] Laminal dental.[7]


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Pirahã some speakers toogixi [tòːɺ͡ɺ̼ìʔì] 'hoe' Only used in some types of speech


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Curipaco[8] [ɺi.wa.'dzo.ɺe] 'ember' In alternation with an alveolar tap.[8]
Ilgar [example needed] Likely an underlying sequence of /ɺj/. Contrasts /l, ɺ, ɭ, ɭ̆/.
Iwaidja ayanjildin[9] [ajanɟiɺin] 'sweetheart' Contrasts /l, ɺ, ɭ, ɭ̆/ and possibly /ʎ, ʎ̆/.
Japanese[10] roku [ɺo̞kɯ̟ᵝ] 'six' Allophonically [ɾ]. See Japanese phonology
kokoro [ko̞ko̞ɺo̞] 'heart'
Kasua[11] hilila [hiɺiɺɑ] 'heavy' Never used at the beginning nor the end of a word.[11]
Wayuu püülükü [pɯːɺɯkɯ] 'pig' Contrasts with /r/
Yalë[12] Yalë [jaɺɛ] 'Yalë' In free variation with [d]; written as ⟨d⟩ or ⟨l⟩

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Association phonétique internationale (1928).
  2. ^ International Phonetic Association (1949), p. 14.
  3. ^ Association phonétique internationale (1932).
  4. ^ Association phonétique internationale (1952).
  5. ^ International Phonetic Association (1978).
  6. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 243.
  7. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 213.
  8. ^ a b Souza (2012), p. 78.
  9. ^ "Mood and Character". ausil.org. Archived from the original on 2022-02-21. Retrieved 2021-03-11.
  10. ^ Akamatsu (1997), p. 106.
  11. ^ a b Logan, Tommy (July 2003). "Organised Phonology Data" (PDF). SIL International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-09. Retrieved 2018-07-09. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Aannested, Aidan. (2020). "Towards a grammar of the Yale language: taking another look at archived field data". SIL International. https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/74/13/68/74136897596164130243049362044105596501/Yade_Grammar.pdf


  • Akamatsu, Tsutomu (1997). Japanese Phonetics: Theory and Practice. München: Lincom Europa. ISBN 3-89586-095-6.
  • Association phonétique internationale (1928). "desizjɔ̃ ofisjɛl" [Décisions officielles]. Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 6 (23): 51–53. JSTOR 44704266.
  • Association phonétique internationale (1932). "The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 1932)". Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 10 (37). Supplement. JSTOR 44749172.
  • Association phonétique internationale (1952). "The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 1951)". Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 30 (97). Front matter. JSTOR 44748475.
  • International Phonetic Association (1949). "The Principles of the International Phonetic Association". Le Maître Phonétique. Troisième série. 27 (91). Supplement. JSTOR i40200179.
  • International Phonetic Association (1978). "The International Phonetic Alphabet (Revised to 1979)". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 8 (1–2). Supplement. JSTOR 44541414.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  • Souza, Erick Marcelo Lima de (2012). Estudo fonológico da Língua Baniwa-Kuripako (Master's dissertation) (in Brazilian Portuguese). University of Campinas. doi:10.47749/T/UNICAMP.2012.898354. hdl:20.500.12733/1619268.

External links[edit]