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Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative

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Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative
IPA Number183
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʑ
Unicode (hex)U+0291
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʑ⟩ ("z", plus the curl also found in its voiceless counterpart ⟨ɕ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z\. It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiced palatal fricative, and as such it can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʝ˖⟩.


alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives [ɕ, ʑ]

Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ажьа [aˈʑa] 'hare' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe жьау [ʑaːw] 'shadow'
Catalan Eastern[1] ajut [ɐˈʑut̪] 'help' (n.) See Catalan phonology
All dialects caixmir [kä(ɪ̯)ʑˈmiɾ] 'Cashmere'
Chinese Jiangshan [ʑyœʔ] 'ten'
Taiwanese Hokkien 今仔日/kin-á-ji̍t [kɪn˧a˥ʑɪt˥] 'today'
Czech život [ʑɪvot] 'life' See Czech phonology
English Ghana[2] vision [ˈviʑin] 'vision' Educated speakers may use [ʒ], which this phoneme corresponds to in other dialects.[2]
Japanese 火事/kaji [kaʑi] 'fire' Found in free variation with [d͡ʑ] between vowels. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian жьэ [ʑa] 'mouth'
Lower Sorbian[3] źasety [ʑäs̪ɛt̪ɨ][stress?] 'tenth'
Luxembourgish[4] héijen [ˈhɜ̝ɪ̯ʑən] 'high' Allophone of /ʁ/ after phonologically front vowels; some speakers merge it with [ʒ]. Occurs in only a few words.[4] See Luxembourgish phonology
Pa Na [ʑu˧˥] 'small'
Polish[5] źrebię [ˈʑrɛbjɛ] 'foal' Also denoted by the digraph ⟨zi⟩. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[6][7][8] magia [maˈʑi.ɐ] 'magic' Also described as palato-alveolar [ʒ].[9][10] See Portuguese phonology
Romani Kalderash[11] ʒal [ʑal] 'he/she/it goes' Realized as [d͡ʒ] in conservative dialects.
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[12] gea [ˈʑanə] 'eyelash' Realized as [d͡ʒ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian Conservative Moscow Standard[13] позже [poʑːe] 'later' Somewhat obsolete in many words, in which most speakers realize it as hard [ʐː].[13] Present only in a few words, usually written ⟨жж⟩ or ⟨зж⟩. See Russian phonology
Sema[14] aji [à̠ʑì] 'blood' Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [d͡ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.[14]
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[15] puž će [pûːʑ t͡ɕe̞] 'the snail will' Allophone of /ʒ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/.[15] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Some speakers of Montenegrin źenica [ʑȇ̞nit̻͡s̪a̠] 'pupil' Phonemically /zj/ or, in some cases, /z/.
Spanish Paraguayan[16] carro [ˈkaʑo] 'car' Dialectal realization of /r/ and allophone of /ɾ/ after /t/.
Tatar Kazan dialect (standard Tatar) җан / can [ʑan] 'soul' In Mishar Dialect, letter җ / c is [d͡ʒ].[17]
Uzbek[18] [example needed]
Xumi Upper[19] [ʑɐ̝˦] 'beer, wine'
Yi /yi [ʑi˧] 'tobacco'

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007:145, 167)
  2. ^ a b Huber (2004:859)
  3. ^ Zygis (2003:180–181)
  4. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  5. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  6. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000)
  7. ^ Silva (2003:32)
  8. ^ Guimarães (2004)
  9. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  10. ^ Medina (2010)
  11. ^ Boretzky & Igla (1994:XVII)
  12. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  13. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:224)
  14. ^ a b Teo (2014:23)
  15. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:68)
  16. ^ "Catálogo de voces hispánicas: Paraguay, Asunción". Instituto Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  17. ^ Leitzinger, Antero: Mishäärit – Suomen vanha islamilainen yhteisö. Helsinki: Kirja-Leitzinger, 1996. ISBN 952-9752-08-3. (p. 45)
  18. ^ Sjoberg (1963:11)
  19. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:383)


External links[edit]