Voiced bilabial affricate
|Voiced bilabial affricate|
The voiced bilabial affricate ([b͡β] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [b] and released as a voiced bilabial fricative [β]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.
Features of the voiced bilabial affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|English||Broad Cockney||rub||[ˈɹ̠ɐˑb͡β]||'rub'||Sporadic allophone of /b/. See English phonology|
|Received Pronunciation||Rare allophone of /b/. See English phonology|
|Scouse||[ˈɹ̠ʊˑb͡β]||Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /b/. See English phonology|
|Shipibo||boko||[ˈb͡βo̽ko̽]||'small intestine'||Possible realization of /β/. See Shipibo phonology.|
|Ngiti||abvɔ||[āb͡βɔ̄]||'thorny vine'||Rarely [bβ] more commonly [b̪v]|
- Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
- Wells (1982), p. 323.
- Gimson (2014), p. 172.
- Wells (1982), p. 372.
- Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001).
- Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 31. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFKutsch_Lojenga1992 (help)
- Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 45. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFKutsch_Lojenga1992 (help)
- Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
- Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X.
- List of languages with [bβ] on PHOIBLE