Voiced bilabial fricative

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Voiced bilabial fricative
β
IPA number 127
Encoding
Entity (decimal) β
Unicode (hex) U+03B2
X-SAMPA B
Kirshenbaum B
Braille ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
Sound
Voiced bilabial approximant
β̞
Sound

The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨β⟩ (or more properly ⟨⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ⟨B⟩. The symbol ⟨β⟩ is the Greek letter beta. This symbol is also sometimes used to represent the bilabial approximant, though that is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic, that is ⟨β̞⟩. Theoretically, it could also be transcribed as an advanced labiodental approximantʋ̟⟩, but this symbol is hardly ever, if at all, used so. Very few languages are known to make a phonemic contrast between the voiced bilabial fricative and the bilabial approximant, but the Uto-Aztecan Tarahumara does. The bilabial fricative is diachronically unstable and is likely to shift to [v].[1]

In English, this sound is not used: it can be made by approximating the normal "v" sound, [v], between the lips.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced bilabial fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

In the following transcriptions, the undertack diacritic is used to indicate an approximant [β̞].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Akei [βati] 'four'
Alekano hanuva [hɑnɯβɑ] 'nothing'
Amharic[2] አበባ [aβ̞əβ̞a] 'flower' Allophone of /b/ medially between sonorants.[2]
Angor fufung [ɸuβuŋ] 'horn'
Basque[3] alaba [alaβ̞a] 'daughter' Allophone of /b/
Berta [βɑ̀lɑ̀ːziʔ] 'no'
Catalan[4] rebost [rəˈβ̞ɔst] 'larder' Approximant or fricative. Allophone of /b/. Mainly found in betacist (/b/ and /v/ merging) dialects. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Fuzhou[5] 初八 [t͡sœ˥˧βaiʔ˨˦] 'eighth day of the month' Allophone of /p/ and /pʰ/ in certain intervocalic positions.[5]
Dahalo[6] [koːβo] 'to want' Weak fricative or approximant. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /b/, and may be simply a plosive [b] instead.[6]
English Chicano very [βɛɹi] 'very' May be realized as [b] instead.
Ewe[7] Eʋe [èβe] 'Ewe' Contrasts with both [v] and [w]
German[8][9] aber [ˈaːβɐ] 'but' Intervocalic and pre-lateral allophone of /b/ in casual speech.[8][9] See Standard German phonology
Hopi tsivot [tsi:βot] 'five'
Japanese[10] 神戸市/be-shi [ko̞ːβ̞e̞ ɕi] 'Kobe' Allophone of /b/ only in fast speech between vowels. See Japanese phonology
Kabyle bri [βri] 'to cut'
Kinyarwanda abana [aβana] 'children'
Korean /Jeonhwa/ [ˈt͡ɕɘːnβwa̠] 'telephone' Allophone of /h/. See Korean phonology
Limburgish[11][12][13][14] wèlle [ˈβ̞ɛ̝lə] 'to want' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Luhya Nabongo [naβongo] 'king' Title of the king like Nabongo Mumia from the Wanga Dialect
Occitan Gascon la-vetz [laβ̞ets] 'then' Allophone of /b/
Portuguese European[15][16] bado [ˈsaβɐðu] 'Saturday' Allophone of /b/. See Portuguese phonology
Ripuarian Colognian[citation needed] wing [βɪŋ] 'wine' Allophone of syllable-initial /v/ for some speakers; can be [ʋ ~ w ~ ɰ] instead.[citation needed] See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect[17] sjwaam [ʃβ̞aːm] 'smoke' Weakly rounded; contrasts with /v/.[17]
Sardinian Logudorese dialect[18] paba About this sound [ˈpäːβä]  'pope' Intervocalic allophone of /b/ as well as word-initial /p/ when the preceding word ends with a vowel and there is no pause between the words.[18]
Spanish[19] lava [ˈläβ̞ä] 'lava' Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[20]Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[21] aber [ˈɑːβ̞eɾ] 'problem' Allophone of /b/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[22] vücut [βy̠ˈd͡ʒut̪] 'body' Allophone of /v/ before and after rounded vowels.[22] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen watan [βatan] 'country'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[23] [example needed] Allophone of /b/

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Picard (1987:364), citing Pope (1966:92)
  2. ^ a b Hayward & Hayward (1999:48)
  3. ^ Hualde (1991:99–100)
  4. ^ Wheeler (2005:10)
  5. ^ a b Zhuqing (2002:?)
  6. ^ a b Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  8. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  9. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013. . This source mentions only intervocalic [β].
  10. ^ Okada (1991:95)
  11. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:155)
  12. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  13. ^ Peters (2006:117)
  14. ^ Verhoeven (2007:219)
  15. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  16. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
  17. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  18. ^ a b (Italian) http://www.antoninurubattu.it/rubattu/grammatica-sarda-italiano-sardo.html
  19. ^ Martínez-Celdrán et al. (2003:257)
  20. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  21. ^ Engstrand (2004:167)
  22. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6)
  23. ^ Merrill (2008:109)

Bibliography[edit]