Voiced alveolar affricate

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Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
d͡z
d͜z
IPA number 104 133
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʣ
Unicode (hex) U+02A3
X-SAMPA dz
Kirshenbaum dz
Sound

The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with d͡z or d͜z (formerly ʣ).

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ձուկ About this sound [d̻͡z̪uk]  'snow'
Belarusian[3] дзеканне [ˈd̻͡z̪ekän̪ʲe] 'dzekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Czech[4] Afgánec byl [ˈävɡäːnɛd̻͡z̪ bɪɫ̪] 'an Afghan was' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Hungarian[5] bodza [ˈbod̻͡z̪ːɒ] 'elderberry' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Latvian[7] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̻͡z̪is̪] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[8] ѕвезда [ˈd̻͡z̪ve̞z̪d̪ä] 'star' See Macedonian phonology
Polish[9] dzwon About this sound [d̻͡z̪vɔn̪]  'bell' See Polish phonology
Russian[10] плацдарм [pɫ̪ɐd̻͡z̪ˈd̪är̠m] 'bridge-head' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[11] отац би / otac bi [ǒ̞t̪äd̻͡z̪ bi] 'father would' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[11] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak sadzba [ˈsäd̻͡z̪bä] 'tariff'
Slovene[12] brivec brije [IPA needed] 'barber shaves' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.
Ukrainian[13] дзвін [d̻͡z̪vin̪] 'bell' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[14] [example needed] Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.

Non-retracted alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz аӡы [ɑˈd͡zɨ] 'water' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe дзэлӀы About this sound [d͡zaɬʼə]  'soldier'
Albanian xehe [d͡zɛhɛ] 'mineral'
Arabic Najdi[15] قـليب [d͡zɛ̝lib] 'well' Corresponds to /q/, /ɡ/, or /dʒ/ in other dialects.
Armenian Western ծակ [d͡zɑɡ] 'hole'
Azerbaijani some Western dialects Cəbrayıl [d͡zæbɾɑˈjɯɫ] 'Jibra'il' Corresponds to /d͡ʒ/ or /ɟ/ in other dialects.
Berber Kabyle Layer [ld͡zajər] 'Algeria'
Catalan[16] dotze [ˈd̪odd̻͡z̺ə] 'twelve' The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[17] zèèg [d͡zɛːx] 'saw' Occasional allophone of /z/; distribution unclear.[17] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad Cockney[18] day [ˈd͡zæˑɪ̯] 'day' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /d/.[19][20] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[20] [ˈd͡zeˑɪ̯]
New York[21] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /d/.[21] See English phonology
Scouse[22] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /d/.[22] See English phonology
French Quebec samedi [samd͡zi] 'Saturday' Allophone of /d/ before /i/ and /y/. See Quebec French phonology
Georgian[23] ვალი [d͡zvɑli] 'bone'
Greek τζάμι [ˈd͡zami] 'window pane'
Hebrew תזונה [d͡zuna] 'nutrition' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Iu Mien nzoc [d͡zò] 'drum'
Japanese 続く/tsudzuku [t͡sɯᵝd͡zɯᵝkɯᵝ] 'continue' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian дзын [d͡zən] 'to throw'
Ngwe Nwametaw dialect [mə̀d͡zə̀] 'path'
Occitan Rhodanien Provençal joine [ˈd͡zujne] 'young'
Pashto پنځه [pind͡zə] 'five'
Portuguese European[24] desafio [d͡zəˈfi.u] 'challenge' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i].
Brazilian[24][25] aprendizado [əpɾẽ̞ˈd͡zadu] 'learning'
Many speakers mezzosoprano [me̞d͡zo̞so̞ˈpɾɐ̃nu] 'mezzo-soprano' Marginal sound. Some might instead use spelling pronunciations.[26] See Portuguese phonology
Northern Qiang  ? [ɣd͡zə] 'rabbit'
Romanian Moldavian dialects[27] zic [d͡zɨk] 'say' Corresponds to [z] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Ubykh [məˈdza] 'light' See Ubykh phonology
West Frisian widze [ˈʋɪd͡zǝ] 'cradle'
Yi /zzy [d͡zɪ˧] 'ride'

Variable[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian[28] zero [ˈd͡zɛːɾo] 'zero' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[28] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
d͡ð̠
d͡ð̳
d͡ɹ̝

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[29] dream [d͡ɹ̝ʷiːm] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the sequence /dr/; more commonly postalveolar [d̠͡ɹ̠˔].[29] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[29]
Italian Sicily[30] Adriatico [äd͡ð̠iˈäːt̪iko] 'The Adriatic Sea' Apical. It is a regional realization of the sequence /dr/, and can be a realized sequence [dð̠] instead.[31] See Italian phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, p. 52, ISBN 3895860352 
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  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje 
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  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
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  • Puppel, Stanisław; Nawrocka-Fisiak, Jadwiga; Krassowska, Halina (1977), A handbook of Polish pronunciation for English learners, Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe 
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