Voiced labiodental affricate

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Voiced labiodental affricate
Audio sample

The voiced labiodental affricate ([b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].


Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • There are two variants of the stop component:
    • bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. The affricate with this stop component is called bilabial-labiodental.
    • labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • The fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[1] vèès [b̪͡vɛːs] 'screw' Labiodental; occasional allophone of /v/; distribution unclear.[1]
Italian Some central-south dialects[2] in vetta [iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä] 'at the top' Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals.[2] See Italian phonology
Luxembourgish[3] Kampf am Ënnergrond [ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm
'underground battle' Allophone of a word-final /pf/ before a word-initial vowel. Occurs only in German loanwords.[3] See Luxembourgish phonology
Ngiti[4] abvɔ [āb̪͡vɔ̄] 'thorny vine' Less commonly [b͡β][5]
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect shilebvu [ʃileb̪͡vu] 'chin'


  1. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  2. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 72–73.
  4. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 31.
  5. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 45.


  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994), Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, ISBN 978-3-927620-71-1
  • Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083

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