voiced labiodental affricate ( [b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].
Features [ edit ]
Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:
manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. There are two variants of the
bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. The affricate with this stop component is called bilabial-labiodental. labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. The
fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. Its
phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Occurrence [ edit ]
未來 bhuê 7 lai 5
[b̪͡vue꜔꜔ lai˥˥] 'future'
Allophone of /b/ before /u/ in Chaoyang dialect
Italian Some central-south dialects
[iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä] 'at the top'
Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals. See Italian phonology
Kam pf am Ënnergrond
[ ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm ˈənɐɡʀont] 'underground battle'
Allophone of a word-final /pf/ before a word-initial vowel. Occurs only in German loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology
[āb̪͡vɔ̄] 'thorny vine'
Less commonly [ ]
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect
References [ edit ]
Zhang, Guangyu (2016). 閩客方言史稿 [ History of Min & Hakka Dialects] (增訂本 ed.). Wu-Nan Book Inc. ISBN . 9789571187419
Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [ Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi: 10.1017/S0025100312000278 Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994), Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, ISBN 978-3-927620-71-1
External links [ edit ]