Voiced palatal fricative

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Voiced palatal fricative
IPA number 139
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
Kirshenbaum C<vcd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription j, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database.[citation needed] In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.

There is also a voiced post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.


Features of the voiced palatal fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan[1] figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[2] talg [ˈtˢælˀʝ] 'tallow' Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/.[2] See Danish phonology
Dutch Southern geld [ʝ̠ɛl̪t̪] 'money' Post-palatal; more back in other dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology
Greek Cypriot[3] ελιά [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/
Standard Modern[4][5] γένος About this sound [ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s̠ ]  'gender' Post-palatal.[4][5] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian[6] dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw (one/some) in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[7] an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Italian Southern dialects figlio [ˈfiʝːo] 'son' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[8] gèr [ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Post-palatal; allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[8]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[9][10][11][12] gi [ʝiː] 'to give' Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech.[12] See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Ghilji and Wardak dialects[13] موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Ripuarian zeije [ˈt͡sɛʝə] 'to show'
Scottish Gaelic[14] dhiubh [ʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Spanish[15] sayo [ˈsaʝo̞] 'smock' More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ll in most dialects. See Yeísmo
Swedish[16] jord About this sound [ʝuːɖ]  'soil' See Swedish phonology

See also[edit]



  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day (PDF), University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, JSTOR 602038 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  • Skaug, Ingebjørg (2003) [First published 1996], Norsk språklydlære med øvelser (3rd ed.), Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS, ISBN 82-456-0178-0 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7