Voiced palatal fricative

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Voiced palatal fricative
ʝ
IPA number 139
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
X-SAMPA j\
Kirshenbaum C<vcd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Sound

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ʝ〉 (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcriptionj〉, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic, the sound occurs phonemically, along with its voiceless counterpart, and in several more, the sound occurs a result of phonological processes.

There is also a voiced post-palatal fricative (also called pre-velar or fronted velar) in some languages.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palatal fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar [ɣ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Palatal[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan[1] figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[2] talg [ˈtˢælˀʝ] 'tallow' Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/.[2] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[3] ja [ʝaː] 'yes' Frequent allophone of /j/, especially in emphatic speech.[3] See Dutch phonology
German Standard[4][5] Jacke [ˈʝäkə] 'jacket' Most often transcribed with 〈j〉; also described as an approximant [j][6][7] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant.[8] See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot[9] ελιά [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/
Hungarian[10] dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[11] an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Italian Southern dialects figlio [ˈfiʝːo] 'son' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Lithuanian[12][13] ji [ʝɪ] 'she' Most often transcribed with 〈j〉; also described as an approximant [j].[14] See Lithuanian phonology
Mapudungun[15] kayu [kɜˈʝʊ] 'six' May be an approximant [j] instead.[15]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[16][17] gi [ʝiː] 'to give' Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech.[17] See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Ghilji dialect[18] موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Wardak dialect[18]
Ripuarian zeije [ˈt͡sɛʝə] 'to show'
Russian[19] яма [ˈʝämə] 'pit' Allophone of /j/ in emphatic speech.[19] See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[20] dhiubh [ʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Slovak[21] prijímať [ˈpɾɪʝɪːmäc̟] 'to receive' Possible allophone of /j/ between close front vowels.[21] See Slovak phonology
Spanish[22] sayo [ˈsäʝo̞] 'smock' More often an approximant; may also be represented by 〈ll〉 in many dialects. See Spanish phonology and Yeísmo
Swedish[23] jord About this sound [ʝuːɖ]  'soil' See Swedish phonology

Post-palatal[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian геаграфія [ʝ̠e.äˈɣɾäfʲijä] 'geography' Typically transcribed with 〈ɣʲ〉. See Belarusian phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[24] gaan [ʝ̠aːn] 'to go' May be velar [ɣ] instead.[24] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[24]
German Standard[25] Riese [ˈʝ̠iːzə] 'giant' Allophone of the fricative /ʁ/ before and after front vowels.[25] See Standard German phonology
Greek Standard Modern[26][27] γένος About this sound [ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s̠]  'gender' See Modern Greek phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[28] gèr [ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[28]
Lithuanian[14][29] Hiustonas [ˈʝ̠ʊs̪t̪ɔn̪ɐs̪] 'Houston' Very rare;[30] typically transcribed with 〈ɣʲ〉. See Lithuanian phonology
Russian Standard[19] других гимнов [d̪rʊˈɡʲɪʝ̠ ˈɡʲimn̪əf] 'of other anthems' Allophone of /x/ before voiced soft consonants.[19] Typically transcribed with 〈ɣʲ〉. See Russian phonology
Southern гимн [ʝ̠imn̪] 'anthem' Typically transcribed with 〈ɣʲ〉; corresponds to [ɡʲ] in standard Russian. See Russian phonology

Variable[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Mapudungun[31] [example needed] Allophone of /ɣ/ before the front vowels /ɪ, e/.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day (PDF), University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
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  • Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris 
  • Hall, Christopher (2003) [First published 1992], Modern German pronunciation: An introduction for speakers of English (2nd ed.), Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-6689-1 
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  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, doi:10.2307/602038, JSTOR 602038 
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