Voiced palatal fricative

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Voiced palatal fricative[edit]

Voiced palatal fricative
ʝ
IPA number 139
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+029D
X-SAMPA j\
Kirshenbaum C<vcd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Sound

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʝ (crossed-tail j), or in broad transcription j, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\.

The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database.[citation needed] In four of the languages listed below (Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic) this sound occurs phonemically along with its voiceless counterpart and in several more as a result of phonological processes.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palatal fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian frayar [fɾäˈʝär] 'to destroy'
Berber Kabyle cceǥ [ʃʃəʝ] 'to slip'
Catalan Majorcan[1] figuera [fiˈʝeɾə] 'fig tree' Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Greek Cypriot[2] ελιά [e̞ˈʝːɐ] 'olive' Allophone of /ʎ/.
Hungarian[3] dobj be [dobʝ bɛ] 'throw (one/some) in' An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[4] an ghrian [ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ] 'the sun' See Irish phonology
Pashto Wardak dialect[5] موږ [muʝ] 'we'
Ripuarian zeije [ˈt͡sɛʝə] 'to show'
Scottish Gaelic[6] dhiubh [ʝu] 'of them' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Spanish[7] sayo [ˈsaʝo̞] 'smock' More often is an approximant. May also be represented by ll in certain dialects. See Spanish phonology
Swedish[8] jord About this sound [ʝuːɖ]  'soil' See Swedish phonology

Voiced pre-velar fricative[edit]

Voiced pre-velar fricative
ɣ̟

The voiced pre-velar fricative or voiced post-palatal fricative is a fricative consonant occurring in Belgian Dutch and in the The Netherlands, primarily in the provinces of Brabant and Limburg and parts of Gelderland. The sound, the so-called 'soft g', is sometimes - erroneously - described as a voiced palatal fricative. It would however be correct to consider the sound a voiced post-palatal fricative.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced pre-velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is pre-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the hard and the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Southern geld [ɣ̟ɛl̪t̪] 'money' Not all dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology
Greek Standard Modern[9][10] γένος About this sound [ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s]  'gender' See Modern Greek phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[11] gèr [ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[11]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art", Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208 
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2010), "A (brief) review of Cypriot Phonetics and Phonology", The Greek Language in Cyprus from Antiquity to the Present Day, University of Athens, pp. 107–124 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Gósy, Mária (2004), Fonetika, a beszéd tudománya (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Henderson, Michael M. T. (1983), "Four Varieties of Pashto", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 103 (3): 595–597, JSTOR 602038 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127 
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0 
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge University Press) 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7