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Voiced palatal implosive

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Voiced palatal implosive
IPA Number164
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʄ
Unicode (hex)U+0284
Braille⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)

The voiced palatal implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ ʄ ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\_<. Typographically, the IPA symbol is a dotless lowercase letter j with a horizontal stroke that was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter f (the symbol for the voiced palatal stop) and a rightward hook (the diacritic for implosives). A very similar-looking letter, ⟨ ƒ ⟩ (an ⟨f⟩ with a tail), is used in Ewe for /ɸ/.


Features of the voiced palatal implosive:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (glottalic ingressive), which means it is produced by pulling air in by pumping the glottis downward. Since it is voiced, the glottis is not completely closed, but allows a pulmonic airstream to escape through it.


Language Dialect Word IPA Meaning Notes
Fula[1] [ʄetugol] 'to take'
Konso[2] [ʄapʄap] ‘to rot/decay completely’
Serer[3] ƈaar/ࢢَارْ [ʄaːɾ] 'to have ringworm' Contrasts /ɓ̥, ɗ̥, ʄ̊, ɓ, ɗ, ʄ/.
Somali[4] Maay Maay [example needed]
Swahili jana [ʄana] 'yesterday' In free variation with /dʒ/
Saraiki ڄاݨݨ [ʄɑ̃ɽəɳ] 'know'
Sindhi ڄِڀَ [ʄɪbʱə] 'tongue'
Tunni[5] [ʄoːɡ] 'to stay'
Wu[6][7] Fengxian (cia1) [ʄiɑ˥˧] 'domestic' literary reading

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Keer (1999:82)
  2. ^ Orkaydo, Ongaye Oda (2013). A Grammar of Konso. p. 11.
  3. ^ Mc Laughlin (2005:100)
  4. ^ Paster, Mary (2006). Aspects of Maay phonology and morphology. Pomona College.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ Tosco (1997:15)
  6. ^ Zhu, Xiaonong (2006). "內爆音" [On Implosives]. 方言 [Fangyan] (1). Beijing: 16–21.
  7. ^ "吳語學堂" [Wugniu]. 27 February 2024.


  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X(subscription required)
  • Keer, Edward (1999), Geminates, The OCP and The Nature of CON, Rutgers University
  • Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 201–214, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002215, S2CID 145717014(subscription required)
  • Tosco, Mauro (1997), Af Tunni: Grammar, texts, and glossary of a southern Somali dialect, Rüdiger Köppe, ISBN 3896450603

External links[edit]