Voiced palatal lateral fricative
|Voiced palatal lateral fricative|
|IPA Number||157 429|
The voiced palatal lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʎ̝⟩, though in extIPA ⟨̬⟩ is preferred. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
This sound is not known to occur as a phoneme in any language, but it does occur as an allophone of /ʎ/ in Italian and Jebero.
Features of the voiced palatal lateral fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Italian||Many accents||figlio||[ˈfiʎ̝ːo]||'son'||Approximant [ʎ] in other accents. See Italian phonology|
|Jebero||[iˈʎ̝apa]||'shotgun'||Dentoalveolo-palatal. Occasional allophone of /ʎ/; only lightly fricated.|
- ^ a b Ashby (2011:64): "(...) in a large number of Italian accents, there is considerable friction involved in the pronunciation of [ʎ], creating a voiced palatal lateral fricative (for which there is no established IPA symbol)."
- ^ a b c Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
- Ashby, Patricia (2011), Understanding Phonetics, Understanding Language series, Routledge, ISBN 978-0340928271
- Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370