Voiced retroflex affricate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA number 106 (137)
Entity (decimal) ɖ​͡​ʐ
Unicode (hex) U+0256 U+0361 U+0290
Kirshenbaum dz.

The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɖ͡ʐ ⟩, sometimes simplified to ⟨ ⟩.[1] It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).


Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian лічба [lʲiɖ͡ʐbä] 'number' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Wu [ɖ͡ʐaŋ] 'to grow'
Polish Standard[2][3] em About this sound [ɖ͡ʐɛm]  'jam' Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[4] dzwon [ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪] 'bell' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[5]
Northern Qiang vvdhe [ʁɖ͡ʐə] 'star'
Russian[3][6] джем About this sound [ɖ͡ʐɛm]  'jam' Laminal. It is a very rare variant, and it is usually pronounced as a sequence [dʐ]. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian џем / em [ɖ͡ʐê̞m] 'jam' Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[7] ús [ɖ͡ʐu̞ːs] 'juice' Laminal.
Torwali[8] حؕىگ [ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥] 'long' Contrasts with a palatal affricate.
Yi /rry [ɖ͡ʐɪ˧] 'tooth'

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Unlike the alveolar and palato-alveolar affricates, there is no obsolete ligature.
  2. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  3. ^ a b Hamann (2004:65)
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ [2][dead link]
  6. ^ Lightner (1972:67)
  7. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  8. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)