Voiceless dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

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Voiceless alveolar lateral approximant
IPA number155 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAl_0
Voiceless postalveolar lateral approximant
l̠̊
Voiceless dental lateral approximant
l̪̊

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
  • There are four specific variants of [l̥]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Occurrence[edit]

Dental or denti-alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Trondheim dialect[1] lt [s̪al̪̊t̪] 'sold' Laminal denti-alveolar; allophone of /l/. Also described as a fricative [ɬ̪].[2] See Norwegian phonology
Turkish[3] yol [ˈjo̞ɫ̪̊] 'way' Velarized laminal denti-alveolar.[3] It is a frequent realization of /ɫ/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.[4] See Turkish phonology

Alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Danish Standard[5] plads [ˈpl̥a̝s] 'square' Before /l/, aspiration of /p, t, k/ is realized as devoicing of /l/.[5] See Danish phonology
English[6] clean About this sound[kl̥iːn]  'clean'
Estonian[7] mahl [mɑ̝hːl̥] 'juice' Word-final allophone of /l/ after /t, s, h/.[7] See Estonian phonology
Moksha калхне [ˈkal̥nʲæ] 'these fishes' Contrasts plain voiceless, plain voiced, palatalized voiceless and palatalized voiced versions.
Tibetan ལྷ [l̥a] 'deity' Contrasts voiceless and voiced lateral approximants
Ukrainian[8] смисл [s̪mɪs̪l̥] 'sense' Word-final allophone of /l/ after voiceless consonants.[8] See Ukrainian phonology
Washo madukwáwLu [maduˈkwawl̥u] 'sunflower'
Xumi Lower[9] [RPʁul̥o] 'head' Contrasts with the voiced /l/.[9][10]
Upper[10] [EPbəl̥ɐ] 'to open a lock'

Postalveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Turkish[3] dil [ˈd̪il̠̊ʲ] 'tongue' Palatalized.[3] It is a frequent realization of /l/ in word-final and preconsonantal positions.[4] See Turkish phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Vanvik (1979:36)
  2. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:79)
  3. ^ a b c d Zimmer & Orgun (1999:154–155)
  4. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  5. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:65–66)
  6. ^ "Phonemic vs Phonetic Transcription". australianlinguistics.com. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  8. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:10)
  9. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  10. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.

References[edit]

External links[edit]