Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
|Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate|
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ɕ⟩ (formerly ⟨ʨ⟩). The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese and Serbo-Croatian.
Although the voiceless alveolo-palatal non-sibilant affricate has not been reported to occur in any language, it can be represented in the IPA as ⟨c͇͡ç͇⟩, ⟨c̟͡ç̟⟩ or simply ⟨c͡ç˖⟩.
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Catalan||All dialects||fletxa||[ˈfɫet͡ɕə]||'arrow'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Cantonese||豬/zyu1||[tɕyː˥]||'pig'||Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology|
|Mandarin||北京/Běijīng||[peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥] (help·info)||'Beijing'||Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Danish||tjener||[ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ]||'servant'||Normal realization of the sequence /tj/. See Danish phonology|
|Japanese||知人/chijin||[t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ]||'acquaintance'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||집/jip||[t͡ɕip̚]||'house'||See Korean phonology|
|Norwegian||tjern||[t͡ɕæɳ]||'pond'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Polish||ćma||[t͡ɕmä] (help·info)||'moth'||See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||Brazilian||tcheco||[ˈtɕɛku]||'Czech'||Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. Argued both to be laminal [tʃ], and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate", same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ], and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars. See Portuguese phonology|
|Most Brazilian dialects||petit-pois||[pɪ̥̆ˈtɕi puˈa]||'green peas'|
|Romanian||Banat dialect||frate||[frat͡ɕe][stress?]||'brother'||One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||чуть||[t͡ɕʉtʲ]||'narrowly'||See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||Ловћен / Lovćen||[ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n]||'Lovćen'||Merges with /t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Swedish||Finland||kjol||[t͡ɕuːl]||'skirt'||See Swedish phonology|
|Vietnamese||cha||[t͡ɕa]||'father'||See Vietnamese phonology|
|Yi||ꏢ/ji||[t͡ɕi˧]||'sour'||Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms|
- Wheeler (2005:12)
- Grønnum (2005:148)
- Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181.
- Jassem (2003:105)
- seqüências de (sibilante + africada alveopalatal) no português falado em Belo Horizonte Page 18 (Portuguese)
- Análise acústica de sequências de fricativas seguidas de [i produzidas por japoneses aprendizes de português brasileiro] (Portuguese)
- Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português (Portuguese)
- Dialects of Brazil: the palatalization of the phonemes /t/ and /d/ Page 27 (Portuguese)
- Pop (1938), p. 29.
- Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993:24)
- Sjoberg (1963:12)
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar
- Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746
- Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
- Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213