Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with the dental [t͡s, t͡sʰ], with the velar [k, kʰ], and the retroflex [ʈ͡ʂ, ʈ͡ʂʰ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. Argued both to be laminal[tʃ], and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate", same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ], and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars. See Portuguese phonology