Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 215
Entity (decimal) ʨ
Unicode (hex) U+02A8
X-SAMPA t_s\ or c_s\

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨t͡ɕ⟩, ⟨t͜ɕ⟩, ⟨c͡ɕ⟩ and ⟨c͜ɕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_s\ and c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨c⟩ (c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ in the IPA and ts\ or cs\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [t]) or [c̟] (advanced [c]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_-' or t_-_j and c_+, respectively.

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʨ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Polish and Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate.


Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕə] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Chinese Cantonese /zyu1 [tɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 北京/Běijīng About this sound [peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥]  'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[2] tjener [ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[2] See Danish phonology
Japanese 知人/chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean /jip [t͡ɕip̚] 'house' See Korean phonology
Norwegian tjern [t͡ɕæɳ] 'pond' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[3] ćma About this sound [t͡ɕmä]  'moth' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[4] frate [frat͡ɕe][stress?] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'barely' See Russian phonology
Sema[5] akichi [à̠kìt͡ɕì] 'mouth' Possible allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [t͡ʃ] instead.[5]
Serbo-Croatian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n] 'Lovćen' Merges with /t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sorbian Lower[6] šćit [ɕt͡ɕit̪] 'protection'
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[7] ฉัน [tɕʰǎn] 'I'
Uzbek[8] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[9] [Ht͡ɕɐ] 'star'
Upper[10] [Ht͡ɕɜ]
Yi /ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also[edit]