Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA Number215
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʨ
Unicode (hex)U+02A8

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are t͡ɕ, t͜ɕ, c͡ɕ and c͜ɕ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_s\ and c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with c (c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding or in the IPA and ts\ or cs\ in X-SAMPA.

Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [t]) or [c̟] (advanced [c]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_-' or t_-_j and c_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ȶ, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [t̠ʲɕ], [c̟ɕ] and [ȶɕ].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol U+02A8 ʨ LATIN SMALL LETTER TC DIGRAPH WITH CURL; ʨ was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian or Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate. U+107AB 𐞫 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL TC DIGRAPH WITH CURL is a superscript IPA letter.[1]


Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[2] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕɐ] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Chinese Cantonese / Yale: j / Jyutping: zyu¹ [t͡ɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 北京 / Běijīng [peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥] 'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvash чипер/çiper [t͡ɕi'p̬ɛr] 'cute'
Danish[3] tjener [ˈt͡ɕeːnɐ] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[3] See Danish phonology
Dzongkha ཆུ / chuu [t͡ɕuː] 'water'
Irish Some dialects[4][5][6] tír [t͡ɕiːɾʲ] 'country' Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /tʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[4][5][6] See Irish phonology
Japanese 知人/chijin [t͡ɕiʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 제비/jebi [t͡ɕebi] 'swallow' See Korean phonology
Marathi चिंच/çinç [t͡ɕint̪s] 'tamarind' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of [tʃ]. See Marathi phonology
Okinawan 'ucinaaguci [ʔut͡ɕinaːɡut͡ɕi] 'Okinawan language' Merged with [ts].
Polish[7] ćma [t͡ɕmä] 'moth' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[8] frate [ˈfrat͡ɕe] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect: allophone of /t/ before front vowels. Corresponds to [t] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian чуть/č [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'barely' See Russian phonology
Sema[9] akichi [à̠kìt͡ɕì] 'mouth' Possible allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [t͡ʃ] instead.[9]
Serbo-Croatian[10] лећа/leća [lět͡ɕä] 'lentils' Merges into /t͡ʃ/ in dialects that do not distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.
Slovene Dialects with tʼ–č distinction (such as Resian) teči [ˈt̪ɛ̀ːt͡ɕì] 'con artist' In Standard Slovene obsolete. See Slovene phonology
Sorbian Lower[11] šćit [ɕt͡ɕit̪] 'protection'
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[12] าน/čán [t͡ɕaːn] 'dish' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Urarina[13] katsa [kat͡ɕá] 'man'
Uzbek[14] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi[15][16] [t͡ɕɐ˦] 'star'
Yi /ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Miller, Kirk; Ashby, Michael (2020-11-08). "L2/20-252R: Unicode request for IPA modifier-letters (a), pulmonic" (PDF).
  2. ^ Wheeler (2005:12)
  3. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:148)
  4. ^ a b Mhac an Fhailigh (1968:36–37)
  5. ^ a b Wagner (1959:9–10)
  6. ^ a b de Búrca (1958:24–25)
  7. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  8. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  9. ^ a b Teo (2014:24)
  10. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  11. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181.
  12. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993:24)
  13. ^ Olawsky (2006), p. 39.
  14. ^ Sjoberg (1963:12)
  15. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 365.
  16. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 382.


External links[edit]