Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 215
voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨ t͡ɕ ⟩ (formerly ⟨ ʨ ⟩). The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese and Serbo-Croatian.
Features [ edit ]
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:
manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence. Its
place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The
airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Occurrence [ edit ]
[t͡ɕəɣə] ( · help ) info 'tree'
Catalan [1 ] All dialects
/ 豬 zyu1
Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See
/ 北京 Běi jīng
[peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥] ( · help ) info '
Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with
[t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish [2 ]
Normal realization of the sequence
/tj/. See [2 ] Danish phonology
/ 知人 chijin
Polish [4 ]
[t͡ɕmä] ( · help ) info 'moth'
Portuguese [5 ]
/ before t/ /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. Argued both to be laminal [tʃ], and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate", [6 ] same of fellow alveolo-palatal [5 ] [ and l̠ʲ] [, n̠ʲ] and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars. [7 ] See [8 ] Portuguese phonology
[pɪ̥̆ˈtɕi puˈa] 'green peas'
Romanian Banat dialect
One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to
[ in standard Romanian. See t] Romanian phonology
Sema [10 ]
Possible allophone of
/t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ instead. t͡ʃ] [10 ]
/ Лов ћен Lov ćen
Lovćen' Merges with
/t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Thai [11 ]
Uzbek [12 ]
[ Ht͡ɕɐ] 'star'
/ ꏢ ji
aspirated and unaspirated forms
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Bibliography [ edit ]
Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (3): 363–379, doi: 10.1017/S0025100313000157
Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (3): 381–396, doi: 10.1017/S0025100313000169
Grønnum, Nina (2005), (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk ISBN 87-500-3865-6
Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi: 10.1017/S0025100303001191
Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar
Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–26, doi: 10.1017/S0025100300004746
Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213