Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number215
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʨ
Unicode (hex)U+02A8
X-SAMPAt_s\
Audio sample

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨t͡ɕ⟩, ⟨t͜ɕ⟩, ⟨c͡ɕ⟩ and ⟨c͜ɕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_s\ and c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨c⟩ (c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ in the IPA and ts\ or cs\ in X-SAMPA.

Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [t]) or [c̟] (advanced [c]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_-' or t_-_j and c_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ⟨ȶ⟩, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [t̠ʲɕ], [c̟ɕ] and [ȶɕ].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʨ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Albanian and Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕə] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Chinese Cantonese /j About this sound[tɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 北京 / Běijīng About this sound[peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥]  'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[2] tjener [ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[2] See Danish phonology
Irish Some dialects[3][4][5] [example needed] Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /tʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[3][4][5] See Irish phonology
Japanese 知人 / chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 제비 / jebi [t͡ɕebi] 'swallow' See Korean phonology
Polish[6] ćma About this sound[t͡ɕmä]  'moth' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[7] frate [ˈfrat͡ɕe] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect: allophone of /t/ before front vowels. Corresponds to [t] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'barely' See Russian phonology
Sema[8] akichi [à̠kìt͡ɕì] 'mouth' Possible allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [t͡ʃ] instead.[8]
Serbo-Croatian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n] 'Lovćen' Merges into /t͡ʃ/ in dialects that don't distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.
Sorbian Lower[9] šćit [ɕt͡ɕit̪] 'protection'
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[10] จาน [t͡ɕaːn] 'dish' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Uzbek[11] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[12] [Ht͡ɕɐ][clarification needed] 'star'
Upper[13] [Ht͡ɕɜ][clarification needed]
Yi /ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157[permanent dead link]
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
  • de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (1): 24–26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746
  • Wagner, Heinrich (1959), Gaeilge Theilinn (in Irish), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 1-85500-055-5
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175–213

External links[edit]