Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA number 215
Entity (decimal) ʨ
Unicode (hex) U+02A8

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡ɕ (formerly ʨ). The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese and Serbo-Croatian.

Although the voiceless alveolo-palatal non-sibilant affricate has not been reported to occur in any language, it can be represented in the IPA as c͇͡ç͇, c̟͡ç̟ or simply c͡ç˖.


Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Abzakh чъыгы About this sound [t͡ɕəɣə]  'tree'
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕə] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Chinese Cantonese /zyu1 [tɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 北京/Běijīng About this sound [peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥]  'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[2] tjener [ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[2] See Danish phonology
Japanese 知人/chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean /jip [t͡ɕip̚] 'house' See Korean phonology
Lower Sorbian[3] šćit [ɕt͡ɕit̪] 'protection'
Norwegian tjern [t͡ɕæɳ] 'pond' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[4] ćma About this sound [t͡ɕmä]  'moth' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[5] Brazilian tcheco [ˈtɕɛku] 'Czech' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. Argued both to be laminal [tʃ],[6] and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate",[5] same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ],[7] and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars.[8] See Portuguese phonology
Mato-grossense cheio [ˈtɕej.jʊ] 'full'
Most Brazilian dialects petit-pois [pɪ̥̆ˈtɕi puˈa] 'green peas'
Carioca T-shirts [tsiˈɕɜxtɕɕ] 'T-shirts'
Some speakers distinto [dʑitɕˈɕĩtu̥] 'distinct'
Romanian Banat dialect[9] frate [frat͡ɕe][stress?] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'narrowly' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n] 'Lovćen' Merges with /t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[10] ฉัน [tɕʰǎn] 'I'
Uzbek[11] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Yi /ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also[edit]