Voiceless bilabial fricative

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This article is about the consonantal sound. For the Greek letter, see Phi (letter). For the Cyrillic letter, see Ef (Cyrillic).
Voiceless bilabial fricative
ɸ
IPA number 126
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɸ
Unicode (hex) U+0278
X-SAMPA p\
Kirshenbaum P
Braille ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
Sound

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɸ⟩. For English-speakers, it is easiest to think of the sound as an f-sound made only with the lips, instead of the upper teeth and lower lip, or a blowing sound.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless bilabial fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ainu[citation needed] フチ [ɸu̜tʃi] 'grandmother'
Angor[citation needed] fi [ɸi] 'body'
Bengali Eastern dialects /fol [ɸɔl] 'fruit' Allophone of /f/ in Bangladesh and Tripura, /pʰ/ used in Western dialects.
Ewe[1] éƒá [é ɸá] 'he polished' Contrasts with /f/
Italian Tuscan[2] i capitani [iˌhäɸiˈθäːni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of /p/.[2] See Italian phonology
Itelmen чуфчуф [tʃuɸtʃuɸ] 'rain'
Japanese[3] 腐敗/fuhai [ɸɯhai] 'decay' Allophone of /h/ before /ɯ/. See Japanese phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Kwama[citation needed] [kòːɸɛ́] 'basket'
Mao[citation needed] [ʔɑ̄ˈɸɑ́ŋ] 'empty'
Māori whakapapa [ɸakapapa] 'genealogy'
Odoodee[citation needed] pagai [ɸɑɡɑi] 'coconut'
Spanish Some dialects [4][5] fuera [ˈɸwe̞ɾa̠] 'outside' Non-standard variant of /f/. See Spanish phonology
Standard European[6] pub [ˈpa̠ɸ̞] 'pub' An approximant; allophone of /b/ before a pause.[6]
North-Central Peninsular[7] abdicar [a̠ɸðiˈka̠ɾ] 'abdicate' Allophone of /b/ in the coda. In this dialect, the unvoiced coda obstruents - /p, t, k/ - are realized as fricatives only if they precede a voiced consonant; otherwise, they emerge as stops.
Southern Peninsular[8] los vuestros [lɔʰ ˈɸːwɛʰtːɾɔʰ] 'yours' It varies with [βː] in some accents. Allophone of /b/ after /s/.
Tahitian fī [ʔoːɸiː] 'snake' Allophone of /f/
Turkish Some speakers[9] ufuk [uˈɸuk] 'horizon' Allophone of /f/ before rounded vowels and, to a lesser extent, word-finally after rounded vowels.[9] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen fabrik [ɸabrik] 'factory'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]