Voiceless bilabial trill

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Voiceless bilabial trill
ʙ̥
Audio sample
Encoding
X-SAMPAB\_0

The voiceless bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʙ̥⟩. The X-SAMPA symbol is B\_0

This sound is typologically extremely rare. It occurs in languages such as Pará Arára[1] and Sercquiais.[citation needed]

Only a few languages contrast voiced and voiceless bilabial trills phonemically – e.g. Mangbetu of Congo and Ninde of Vanuatu.[2][3]

There is also a very rare voiceless alveolar bilabially trilled affricate, [t̪͡ʙ̥] (written ⟨tᵖ̃⟩ in Everett & Kern) reported from Pirahã and from a few words in the Chapacuran languages Wariʼ and Oro Win. The sound also appears as an allophone of the labialized voiceless alveolar stop /tʷ/ of Abkhaz and Ubykh, but in those languages it is more often realised by a doubly articulated stop [t͡p]. In the Chapacuran languages, [tʙ̥] is reported almost exclusively before rounded vowels such as [o] and [y].

Features[edit]

Features of the bilabial trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Kom bɨmɨ [ʙ̥ɨmɨ] 'to believe'
Neverver[4] [naɣaᵐʙ̥] 'fire, firewood'
Pará Arára[5] [ʙ̥uta] 'to throw away'
Ubykh[6] тваҳəбза/tuaqhəbza [t͡ʙ̥aχəbza] 'Ubykh language' Allophone of /tʷ/. See Ubykh phonology
Wariʼ tpotpowe [t͡ʙ̥ot͡ʙ̥oweʔ] 'chicken'

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ de Souza, Isaac Costa (2010). "3". A Phonological Description of “Pet Talk” in Arara (MA). University of North Dakota. Retrieved 2020-03-30.
  2. ^ Linguist Wins Symbolic Victory for 'Labiodental Flap'. NPR (2005-12-17). Retrieved on 2010-12-08.
  3. ^ LINGUIST List 8.45: Bilabial trill. Linguistlist.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-08.
  4. ^ See pp.33-34 of: Barbour, Julie (2012). A Grammar of Neverver. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110289619.
  5. ^ de Souza, Isaac Costa (2010). "3". A Phonological Description of “Pet Talk” in Arara (PDF) (MA). SIL Brazil. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
  6. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)