Voiceless labialized velar approximant

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Voiceless labialized velar approximant
ʍ
IPA Number169
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʍ
Unicode (hex)U+028D
X-SAMPAW
Braille⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
Audio sample

The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʍ⟩ (a rotated lowercase letter ⟨w⟩) or ⟨⟩.

[ʍ] is generally called a "fricative" for historical reasons, but in English, the language for which the letter ⟨ʍ⟩ is primarily used, it is a voiceless approximant, equivalent to [w̥] or [hw̥]. The symbol is rarely appropriated for a labialized voiceless velar fricative, [xʷ], in other languages.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless labial-velar approximant:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien 沃花/ak-hue [ʔak̚˥ʔ ʍeː˥] '(to) water flowers'
Cornish whath/hwath [ʍæːθ] 'yet'
Danish Jutish
Old, Middle and Early Modern Danish
hvor [ʍɔr] and variations 'where' Generally transcribed as [hw-] in Danish dialectology.
Modern Danish spelling has retained the mute h in initial hv- and hj-.
English American Theater Standard[1] whine [ʍaɪ̯n] 'whine' Commonly transcribed as /hw/ for simplicity; contrasts with /w/. In General American[2] and New Zealand English[3][4] only some speakers maintain the distinction; in Europe, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents.[5] See English phonology and phonological history of wh.
Conservative Received Pronunciation[5]
Cultivated South African[6]
Conservative General American[2][7]
Irish[6][8][9] [ʍʌɪ̯n]
Scottish[6][10][11][12]
Southern American[13] [ʍäːn]
New Zealand[3][4][10][14] [ʍɑe̯n]
Hupa tł'iwh [t͡ɬʼiʍ] 'snake' Contrasts with /w/ and /xʷ/
Italian Tuscan[15] la qualifica [lä ʍäˈliːfihä] 'the qualification' Intervocalic allophone of /kw/. See Italian phonology
Nahuatl Cuauhtēmallān [kʷaʍteːmalːaːn] 'Guatemala' Allophone of /w/ before voiceless consonants
Slovene[16][17] vse [ˈʍsɛ] 'everything' Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants, in free variation with a vowel [u]. Voiced [w] before voiced consonants.[16][17] See Slovene phonology
Washo Wáʔi [ˈw̥aʔi] 'he's the one who's doing it'
Welsh Southern Colloquial chwe [ʍeː] 'six'

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Skinner (1990), p. 335.
  2. ^ a b Rogers (2000), p. 120.
  3. ^ a b Rogers (2000), p. 117.
  4. ^ a b "Australian English and New Zealand English" (PDF). p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Received Pronunciation Phonology".
  6. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 121.
  7. ^ "North American English: General Accents" (PDF). Universität Stuttgart - Institut für Linguistik. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  8. ^ Wells (1982), p. 432.
  9. ^ "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). pp. 4 and 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  10. ^ a b McMahon (2002), p. 31.
  11. ^ Wells (1982), p. 408.
  12. ^ "Scottish Standard English and Scots" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  13. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006).
  14. ^ Wells (1982), p. 610.
  15. ^ Hall (1944:75)
  16. ^ a b Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  17. ^ a b Greenberg (2006:18)

References[edit]

External links[edit]