Voiceless labiodental affricate

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Voiceless labiodental affricate
p̪͡f
p̪͜f
p̪f
Sound

A voiceless labiodental affricate ([p̪͡f] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a labiodental stop [p̪] and released as a voiceless labiodental fricative [f].

The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga has this affricate, as in [tiɱp̪͡fuβu] "hippopotami" and aspirated [ɱp̪͡fʰuka] "distance" (compare [ɱfutsu] "tortoise", which shows that the stop is not epenthetic), as well as a voiced labiodental affricate, [b̪͡v], as in [ʃileb̪͡vu] "chin". There is no voiceless labiodental fricative [f] in this dialect of Tsonga, only a voiceless bilabial fricative, as in [ɸu] "finished". (Among voiced fricatives, both [β] and [v] occur, however.)

German has a similar sound in Pfeffer /ˈp͡fɛfər/ ('pepper') and Apfel /ˈap͡fəl/ ('apple'). Phonotactically, this /p͡f/ does not occur after long vowels, diphthongs or /l/. It differs from a true labiodental affricate in that it starts out bilabial but then the lower lip retracts slightly for the frication.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless labiodental affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • There are two variants of the stop component:
    • bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. The affricate with this stop component is called bilabial-labiodental.
    • labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • The fricative component of this affricate is labiodental, articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian hupfa [ˈhup͡fɑ] 'to jump' Bilabial-labiodental.
German Standard[1] Pfirsiche About this sound [ˈpfɪʁzɪçə]  'peaches' Bilabial-labiodental.[1] See German phonology
Swiss dialects[2][3] seupfe [ˈz̥oi̯p͡fə] 'soap' Bilabial-labiodental. The example word is from the Zurich dialect.[2]
Italian Some central-south dialects[4] infatti [iɱˈp̪͡fat̪̚t̪i] 'indeed' Labiodental, allophone of /f/ after nasals.[4] See Italian phonology
Luxembourgish[5] Kampf [ˈkʰɑmp͡f] 'fight' Bilabial-labiodental, occurs only in German loanwords.[5] See Luxembourgish phonology
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect [tiɱp̪͡fuβu] 'hippopotami' Labiodental, contrasts with aspirated form.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 45.
  2. ^ a b Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 244.
  3. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  4. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  5. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.

Bibliography[edit]