Voiceless palatal lateral fricative

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Voiceless palatal lateral fricative
ʎ̝̊
𝼆
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʎ​̥​˔
Unicode (hex)U+028E U+0325 U+02D4
Audio sample
Voiceless palatal lateral approximant
ʎ̥
IPA Number157 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAL_0

The voiceless palatal lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a few spoken languages.

This sound is somewhat rare; Dahalo has both a palatal lateral fricative and an affricate; Hadza has a series of affricates. In Bura, it is the realization of palatalized /ɬʲ/ and contrasts with [ʎ].

The IPA has no dedicated symbol for this sound. The devoicing and raising diacritics may be used to transcribe it: ⟨ʎ̝̊⟩. However, the extIPA has the expected letter ⟨𝼆⟩:

Palatal lateral fricative.png

𝼆⟩ was added to Unicode in 2021.

If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal lateral fricative may be transcribed as ⟨ɬ̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalizedɬ⟩) or ⟨ʎ̝̊˖⟩ (devoiced, advanced and raisedʎ⟩); these are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are K_-_j or K_-' and L_0_+_r, respectively. A non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ̊˔⟩ (devoiced and raised ⟨ȴ⟩ can be used, which is an ordinary "l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩).

Some scholars also posit the voiceless palatal lateral approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ⟨ʎ̥⟩.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless palatal lateral fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bura[1] [example needed] Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ɮ].[1]
Dahalo [ʎ̝̊aːbu] 'leaf' Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ɬʷ]
Faroese[2] kjálki [ˈt͡ʃʰaʎ̥t͡ʃɪ] 'jaw' Allophone of /l/.[2] See Faroese phonology
Inupiaq[3] sikł̣aq [sikʎ̝̊˖ɑq] 'pickaxe' Alveolo-palatal;[3] also described as an approximant.[4] Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.
nuiŋił̣ł̣uni [nuiŋiʎ̝̊˖ːuni] 'because it did not appear'
Kumeyaay[5] kałyəxwiiw [kɑʎ̝̊əxʷeːw] 'skunk' Rare in word-initial position.[5] Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.
Norwegian Trondheim subdialect of Trøndersk[6] alt [ɑʎ̥c] 'everything, all' Allophone of /ʎ/ before /c/.[6] See Norwegian phonology
Some subdialects of Trøndersk[6] tatle [tɑʎ̥] 'acting silly' According to some scholars,[7][8] it is a phoneme that contrasts with /ʎ/ (as in /tɑʎ/ 'softwood'.)[6] See Norwegian phonology
Turkish[9] dil [ˈd̪il̠̊ʲ] 'tongue' Devoiced allophone of alveolo-palatal /l/, frequent finally and before voiceless consonants.[9] See Turkish phonology
Xumi Lower[10] [Hʎ̥˖o] 'spirit' Described as an approximant. Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiced /ʎ/.[10][11]
Upper[11] [Hʎ̥˖ɛ] 'flavorless'

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Grønnum (2005), pp. 154–155.
  2. ^ a b Árnason (2011), p. 115.
  3. ^ a b MacLean (1980), p. XX.
  4. ^ Kaplan (1981), p. 29.
  5. ^ a b Langdon (1966), p. 33.
  6. ^ a b c d Vanvik (1979), p. 37.
  7. ^ Such as Vanvik (1979)
  8. ^ An example of a scholar disagreeing with this position is Scholtz (2009). On page 15, she provides a phoneme chart for Trøndersk, in which /ʎ/ is included. Under the phoneme chart she writes "Vanvik also lists /ʎ̥/ as an underlying phoneme, but that’s ridiculous." She provides no further explanation for that.
  9. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), pp. 154–155.
  10. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  11. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.

References[edit]

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1980), Iñupiallu Tanņiḷḷu Uqaluņisa Iḷaņich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. xvii-xx, retrieved 20 December 2017
  • Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1981), Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. 21-29, retrieved 20 December 2017
  • Scholtz, Anna (2009), A phonetic study of the status of three mergers in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian (PDF), Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7

See also[edit]

External links[edit]