Voiceless palatal lateral fricative
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|Voiceless palatal lateral fricative|
|Unicode (hex)||U+028E U+0325 U+02D4|
The IPA has no dedicated symbol for this sound. The devoicing and raising diacritics may be used to transcribe it: ⟨ʎ̝̊⟩. However, the "belt" on the existing symbol for a voiceless lateral fricative, ⟨ɬ⟩, forms the basis for other lateral fricatives used in the extIPA, including the palatal, ⟨ ⟩:
If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal lateral fricative may be transcribed as ⟨ɬ̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalized ⟨ɬ⟩) or ⟨ʎ̝̊˖⟩ (devoiced, advanced and raised ⟨ʎ⟩); these are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
L_0_+_r, respectively. A non-IPA letter ⟨ ⟩ can also be used, and so can the non-IPA ⟨ȴ̊˔⟩ (devoiced and raised ⟨ȴ⟩, which is an ordinary "l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩).
Features of the voiceless palatal lateral fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Bura||[example needed]||Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ɮ].|
|Dahalo||[ʎ̝̊aːbu]||'leaf'||Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ɬʷ]|
|Inupiaq||sikł̣aq||[sikʎ̝̊˖ɑq]||'pickaxe'||Alveolo-palatal; also described as an approximant [ʎ̥˖]. Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.|
|nuiŋił̣ł̣uni||[nuiŋiʎ̝̊˖ʎ̝̊˖uni]||'because it did not appear'|
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1980), Iñupiallu Tanņiḷḷu Uqaluņisa Iḷaņich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. xvii-xx, retrieved 20 December 2017
- Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1981), Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. 21-29, retrieved 20 December 2017