Voiceless palatal lateral fricative
|Voiceless palatal lateral fricative|
|Unicode (hex)||U+028E U+0325 U+02D4|
|Voiceless palatal lateral approximant|
|IPA Number||157 402A|
The IPA has no dedicated symbol for this sound. The devoicing and raising diacritics may be used to transcribe it: ⟨ʎ̝̊⟩. However, the extIPA has the expected letter ⟨⟩:
⟨⟩ was added to Unicode in 2021.
If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal lateral fricative may be transcribed as ⟨ɬ̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalized ⟨ɬ⟩) or ⟨ʎ̝̊˖⟩ (devoiced, advanced and raised ⟨ʎ⟩); these are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
L_0_+_r, respectively. A non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ̊˔⟩ (devoiced and raised ⟨ȴ⟩ can be used, which is an ordinary "l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩).
Some scholars also posit the voiceless palatal lateral approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ⟨ʎ̥⟩.
Features of the voiceless palatal lateral fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Bura||[example needed]||Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ɮ].|
|Dahalo||[ʎ̝̊aːbu]||'leaf'||Contrasts with [ɬ] and [ɬʷ]|
|Faroese||kjálki||[ˈt͡ʃʰaʎ̥t͡ʃɪ]||'jaw'||Allophone of /l/. See Faroese phonology|
|Inupiaq||sikł̣aq||[sikʎ̝̊˖ɑq]||'pickaxe'||Alveolo-palatal; also described as an approximant. Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.|
|nuiŋił̣ł̣uni||[nuiŋiʎ̝̊˖ːuni]||'because it did not appear'|
|Kumeyaay||kałyəxwiiw||[kɑʎ̝̊əxʷeːw]||'skunk'||Rare in word-initial position. Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.|
|Norwegian||Trondheim subdialect of Trøndersk||alt||[ɑʎ̥c]||'everything, all'||Allophone of /ʎ/ before /c/. See Norwegian phonology|
|Some subdialects of Trøndersk||tatle||[tɑʎ̥]||'acting silly'||According to some scholars, it is a phoneme that contrasts with /ʎ/ (as in /tɑʎ/ 'softwood'.) See Norwegian phonology|
|Turkish||dil||[ˈd̪il̠̊ʲ]||'tongue'||Devoiced allophone of alveolo-palatal /l/, frequent finally and before voiceless consonants. See Turkish phonology|
|Xumi||Lower||[Hʎ̥˖o]||'spirit'||Described as an approximant. Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiced /ʎ/.|
- Grønnum (2005), pp. 154–155.
- Árnason (2011), p. 115.
- MacLean (1980), p. XX.
- Kaplan (1981), p. 29.
- Langdon (1966), p. 33. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFLangdon1966 (help)
- Vanvik (1979), p. 37.
- Such as Vanvik (1979)
- An example of a scholar disagreeing with this position is Scholtz (2009). On page 15, she provides a phoneme chart for Trøndersk, in which /ʎ/ is included. Under the phoneme chart she writes "Vanvik also lists /ʎ̥/ as an underlying phoneme, but that’s ridiculous." She provides no further explanation for that.
- Zimmer & Orgun (1999), pp. 154–155.
- Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
- Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
- Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1980), Iñupiallu Tanņiḷḷu Uqaluņisa Iḷaņich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. xvii-xx, retrieved 20 December 2017
- Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1981), Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. 21-29, retrieved 20 December 2017
- Scholtz, Anna (2009), A phonetic study of the status of three mergers in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian (PDF), Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- List of languages with [ʎ̥] on PHOIBLE