Voiceless retroflex lateral affricate

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Voiceless retroflex lateral affricate
IPA Number105 156 402A 429

The voiceless retroflex lateral affricate is a rare consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ʈ͜ɭ̊˔⟩, and in extIPAʈꞎ⟩.


Features of the voiceless retroflex lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Kamkata-viri[1] Kamviri dialect ṭlak′a ṭlaka [ʈɭ̊˔əˈɡ̆ə ʈɭ̊˔əɡ̆ə] rattle Apical post-alveolar. Phonemically a sequence /ʈl/.[1]


  1. ^ a b Strand, Richard F. (2010). "Nurestâni Languages". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 2015-06-20.