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Voiceless retroflex lateral affricate

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Voiceless retroflex lateral affricate
IPA Number105 A78E
Audio sample

The voiceless retroflex lateral affricate is a rare consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The implied symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet, ⟨ʈ͡ꞎ⟩, is also extIPA.


Features of the voiceless retroflex lateral affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical subapical articulation, the tongue can be apical (pointed) or, in some fricatives, laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Kamkata-viri[1] Kamviri dialect ṭlak′a ṭlaka [ʈꞎəˈɡ̆ə ʈꞎəɡ̆ə] "rattle" Apical post-alveolar. Phonemically a sequence /ʈl/.[1]
Bhadarwahi[2] Bhalesi, Bhadrawahi dialects ट्ळा/ṭḷā [ʈ͡ꞎaː] "three" From old /Cr/ clusters. Contrasts /ʈ͡ꞎ ɖ͡𝼅 ɖ͡𝼅ʱ/.[2]


  1. ^ a b Strand, Richard F. (2010). "Nurestâni Languages". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  2. ^ a b Masica (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521299442.