Voiceless uvular trill

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Voiceless uvular trill
ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0
Sound

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[1] goed [ʀ̥ut] 'good' Possible word-initial allophone of /χ/. Some speakers realize it as velar [x].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Baïnounk Gubëeher Some speakers[2] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/.
Dutch Belgian[3] door [doːʀ̥] 'through' Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants and word-finally for speakers with an uvular /r/.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
French Belgian[4] triste [t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ] 'sad' Allophone of /ʀ/ after voiceless consonants;[4] can be [χ] instead.[5] See French phonology
German Chemnitz dialect[6] Rock [ʀ̥ɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q].[6] Doesn't occur in the coda.[6] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[7] geer [ɣeːʀ̥] 'odour' Possible word-final allophone of /r/; may be alveolar [] instead.[8]
Spanish Ponce dialect[9] perro [ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞] 'dog' This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[9] See Spanish phonology

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill[edit]

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill
ʀ̝̊
χ͡ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0_r

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative trill, which means it is a non-sibilant fricative and a trill pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[10] خضراء [x͡ʀ̥adˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[10] Also reported to be simply a fricative (velar, post-velar, uvular, depending on the dialect).[11] See Arabic phonology
Dutch Belgian[12][13] broot [bʀ̝̊oːt] 'bread' Voiced when following a vowel.[14] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Hebrew[15] אוכל [ʔo̞χ͡ʀ̥e̞l] 'food' May be simply a fricative instead.[15] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[16] r [jɔːʀ̝̊¹] 'year' Word-final allophone of /ʀ/; can be simply a fricative [χ] instead.[16] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[17] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊] 'was' Allophone of /ʀ/ in the syllable coda. Only partially devoiced, either uvular [ʀ̝̊] or pre-uvular [ʀ̝̊˖].[17][18]
Weert dialect[18] woor [β̞o̟ə̯ʀ̝̊]
Spanish Madrid[19] jazmín [x͡ʀ̥äðˈmĩn] 'jasmine' Voiceless velar fricative accompanied by a uvular trill.[19] Corresponds to [x ~ χ] in standard European Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Wolof[20] [example needed] Usually transcribed /x/ or /χ/.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
  3. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  4. ^ a b Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68 and 70-71.
  5. ^ Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67, and 71.
  6. ^ a b c Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  7. ^ Peters (2006).
  8. ^ While Peters (2006) does not state that explicitly, he uses the symbol for many instances of the word-final /r/.
  9. ^ a b "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis". 
  10. ^ a b Thelwall & Sa'Addedin (1999), pp. 51 and 53.
  11. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  12. ^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  13. ^ Verhoeven (1994:?), cited in Tops (2009:22 and 83)
  14. ^ Tops (2009), p. 83.
  15. ^ a b Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  16. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  17. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  18. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  19. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler". 
  20. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.

Bibliography[edit]