Voiceless velar affricate

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Voiceless velar affricate
k͡x
k͜x
kx
Encoding
X-SAMPA k_x
Sound

The voiceless velar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound are ⟨k͡x⟩ and ⟨k͜x⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k_x. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨kx⟩ in the IPA and kx in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar affricate,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal affricate - see that article for more information.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar affricate,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar affricate, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular affricate - see that article for more information.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless velar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Dialects spoken in Tyrol Kchind [ˈk͡xind̥] 'child'
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[3] blik [ˈblɪk͡x] 'plate' Optional pre-pausal allophone of /k/.[3] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad Cockney[4] cab [ˈk͡xɛˑb̥] 'cab' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /k/.[5] See English phonology
New Zealand[6] Word-initial allophone of /k/.[6] See English phonology
North Wales[7] [ˈk͡xaˑb̥] Word-initial and word-final allophone of /k/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [kʰ].[7] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[8] Occasional allophone of /k/.[8] See English phonology
Scouse[9] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /k/.[9] See English phonology
German Standard Austrian[10] Kübel [ˈk͡xyːbœl] 'bucket' Possible realization of /k/ before front vowels.[10] See Standard German phonology
Old dialect of Dinkelberg Anke [ˈɑŋk͡xə] 'butter'
Swiss dialects Sack [z̥ɑk͡x] 'bag' May be actually uvular [q͡χ] in some dialects.
Korean[11] [example needed] Allophone of /kʰ/ before /ɯ/.[11] See Korean phonology
Lakota lakhóta [laˈk͡xota] 'Lakota' Allophone of /kʰ/ before /a/, /ã/, /o/, /ĩ/, and /ũ/.
Navajo ashkii [aʃk͡xiː] 'boy' See Navajo phonology
!Xóõ [example needed] Used in pulmonic-contour clicks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  4. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  5. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  6. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 100.
  7. ^ a b Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108-109.
  8. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  9. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  10. ^ a b Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015), p. 341.
  11. ^ a b Shin, Kiaer & Cha (2012), p. 77.

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]