Volk's Electric Railway
|Volk's Electric Railway|
|Locale||Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom|
|Owner||City of Brighton and Hove|
|Operator(s)||City of Brighton and Hove|
|Line length||1.02 miles (1.64 km) after line shortened in 1990|
|Track gauge||2 ft 8 1⁄2 in (825 mm)|
|Old gauge||2 ft (610 mm) (1883-1884)|
|Electrification||110 V DC by inside off-set third rail|
Volk's Electric Railway (VER) is a narrow gauge heritage railway that runs along a length of the seafront of the English seaside resort of Brighton. It was built by Magnus Volk, the first section being completed in August 1883, and is the oldest operating electric railway in the world. Although it was preceded by Werner von Siemens's 1879 demonstration line in Berlin and by the Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway of 1881, neither line is still operational.
Operated as a historical seafront tourist attraction, the railway does not usually run during the winter months, and its service is also liable to occasional suspension due to severe weather or maintenance issues.
In 1883 Magnus Volk opened a short, 2 ft (610 mm) electric railway running for 1⁄4 mile (402 m) between Swimming Arch (opposite the main entrance to Brighton Aquarium, and adjacent to the site of the future Palace Pier) and Chain Pier. Electrical power at 50 V DC was supplied to the small car using the two running rails. In 1884 the line was extended a further ½ mile beyond the Chain Pier to Paston Place (now known as Halfway), and regauged to 2 ft 8 1⁄2 in (825 mm). The electrical supply was increased to 160 V DC and the power plant was installed in the arch built into the cliff face at Paston Place. In 1886 an off-set third rail was added to minimise current leakage.
In 1896 the unusual Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway was built by Volk. Due to problems concerning the construction of lengthened groynes to the east of Paston Place this fascinating railway closed in 1901, although it was not finally dismantled until 1910. Following the closure Volk's original electric railway was extended from Paston Place (today's Halfway) to Black Rock. Paston Place was also the home of Volk's Seaplane Station, which was used by Volk's son George Herbert Volk. In 1930 the line was cut back 200 yards (183 m) from Palace Pier to its present terminus, still known as Aquarium. In 1935 a lido was built at Black Rock, and in the line was shortened by around 200 yards (183 m) to accommodate it. In 1937 a new Black Rock station was opened at the end of the shortened line.
In April 1940, Brighton Corporation took control of the line. Only four months later, World War II defensive preparations caused the line to close. After the war, starting in 1947, the corporation rebuilt the line using 50 lb/yd (25 kg/m) rail for the running line and 25 lb/yd (12 kg/m) mounted on insulators for the third rail. At Black Rock a new station was built to replace the 1937 building which had suffered badly during the war. The line reopened for passengers in 1948.
Winter operation ceased from 1954, although the line did reopen temporarily in the winter of 1980 to cash in on the large numbers of sightseers who had come to look at the Athina B, a freighter that had beached near the Palace Pier. Two-car multiple operation was introduced in 1964. In recent years there has been a decline in visitor numbers due to package holidays. In 1995 the Volk's Electric Railway Association was formed to help the operator of the line (Brighton & Hove City Council) promote and operate the line. And in 2003 the Volks Railway Institute of Science and Technology was formed to promote the educational and science side of the Victorian railway to schools and special interest groups.
In the late 1990s the Black Rock end of the line was temporarily shortened by 211 feet to permit a storm water storage scheme to be built in the marina area. The 1948 station was demolished and replaced by a new single platform station, which opened in 1998 and shares a building with a new Southern Water pumping station. The new building is not quite centred with the ornamental terraces above and behind it, causing the view of the area (from out at sea) to be asymmetrical.
In 2014 it was announced that the railway had been awarded a grant of £1.6 million by the Heritage Lottery Fund, a sum which must be spent by March 2017. The work to be funded is to include the provision of a visitor centre and ticket office at the Aquarium station, a new depot with viewing gallery at Halfway, the restoration of cars 4, 6 and 10 to full working order, and the provision of new educational materials about the railway.
Today the line runs between terminal stations at Aquarium (a short distance from the Palace Pier) and Black Rock (at Black Rock, not far from Brighton Marina), with an intermediate station and depot at Paston Place (now known as Halfway). The line has a 2 ft 8 1⁄2 in (825 mm) narrow gauge, is electrified at 110 V DC using a third rail, and is one mile long.
The line is single throughout with a passing loop at Halfway Station (known previously as Paston Place and Peter Pan's Playground). There are also two passing loops roughly midway between each terminal and Halfway, although neither is used in normal service. In normal service two trains operate from end to end, passing at Halfway station and there is generally only one train on each single track section at any one time. This is sufficient to provide a 15-minute interval service. Drivers are now equipped with radios which allow communication between themselves, stations and control. Nevertheless, the line is operated using single track tokens. There are two tokens, one for the section between Aquarium and Halfway, and one for Halfway to Black Rock. Due to the low line speed, multiple trains are able to operate in each section, but the token must be carried on the train furthest from Halfway.
There are warning lights at pedestrian crossing points to the beach with a warbling siren to warn of the approach of a train. A following train is required to signal its approach to a pedestrian crossing point by sounding its klaxon horn. One such crossing provides the only external access to Halfway station.
The numbering of cars can cause some confusion as numbers were duplicated when new cars replaced scrapped vehicles. In 1948 cars no. 8, 9 and 10 were renumbered 5, 2 and 1 respectively after the cars bearing those numbers were scrapped, all cars reverted to their original numbers in the year 2000. The cars were often built in pairs. Currently, there are seven electric cars and one diesel locomotive in operation on the line with an additional two electric cars on static display elsewhere.
|1 (1st)||10 seater||William Pollard||1883||Unknown||Scrapped||Original two-foot gauge demonstration car. Couldn't be re-gauged when the line was converted, and was scrapped in 1884.|
|1 (2nd)||30 seat saloon||Unknown||1884||Siemens D2 6 hp||Scrapped||Suffered badly from wartime storage. Scrapped June 1948.|
|2||30 seat saloon||Unknown||1885||Siemens D2 6 hp||Scrapped||Suffered badly from wartime storage. Scrapped June 1948.|
|3||40 seat semi-open||VER/Paston Place Works||1892||Greenwood & Batley 7 hp replaced by Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Rebuild in progress||New underframe around 1923. Restoration is being planned by the volunteers of the Volk's Electric Railway Association.|
|4||40 seat semi-open||VER/Paston Place Works||1892||Greenwood & Batley 7 hp replaced by Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Awaiting rebuild||New underframe around 1923. To be returned to full working order by March 2017.|
|5 (1st)||30 seat saloon||VER/Paston Place Works||1896||Siemens 8 hp||Scrapped||Scrapped in the late 1920s. Fate unknown.|
|5 (2nd)||24 seater winter Car||G.Kelsey, Hove||1930||Siemens 8 hp||Scrapped||Unique all steel enclosed car for use in bad weather. Suffered badly from wartime storage and body became heavily corroded. Scrapped c.1946.|
|6||40 seat semi-open||VER/Paston Place Works||1901||Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Awaiting repairs||Requires new underframe. To be returned to full working order by March 2017.|
|7||40 seat semi-open||VER/Paston Place Works||1901||Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Operational||Cars 7 & 8 were the first to be designed with side entrance doors.|
|8 (1st)||40 seat semi-open||VER/Paston Place Works||1901||Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Operational||Carried no.5 between 1948 and 2000.|
|8 (2nd)||Southend Pier 40 seat open||Falcon Works, Loughborough||1898 (Into VER service 1950)||Two 140 Volt motors.||No longer on the railway||Purchased from Southend Pier Railway around 1948. Operated on VER until the 1990s when it was decided to retire the aged Southend cars. Static display at Southend Pier Museum.|
|9 (1st)||40 seat open||VER/Paston Place Works||1910||Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Operational||Carried no.2 between 1948 and 2000.|
|9 (2nd)||Southend Pier 40 seat open||Falcon Works, Loughborough||1898 (Into VER service 1953)||Two 60 volt milk-float motors.||No longer on the railway||Purchased from Southend Pier Railway around 1948. Operated on VER until the 1990s when it was decided to retire the aged Southend cars. Static display at South Downs Heritage Centre, Hassocks.|
|10||40 seat open||VER/Paston Place Works||1926||Compagnie Electrique Belge 8 hp||Awaiting repairs||Carried no.1 between 1948 and 2000. To be resored to full working order by March 2017.|
|PW||Diesel works locomotive||Motor Rail (Alan Keef Ltd.) (40SD530)||1988 (Into VER service 2004)||Perkins diesel engine.||Operational.||Last ever locomotive to be ordered from Motor Rail though actually constructed by Alan Keef Ltd. Built for Butterley Brick Co. Ltd. and operated at Star Lane Brickworks. Passed back to Alan Keef Ltd. after closure of the brickworks, overhauled, and purchased by VER in 2004. First non-electric powered vehicle on VER. Used for maintenance and inspection at times when power rail is switched off.|
The railway also possess a small number of service wagons that are used with the diesel locomotive.
Volk's Electric Railway Association (VERA)
At the invitation of the Council and the management of the railway a supporters association, 'The Volk's Electric Railway Association' was formed in 1995. Members of the Association provide practical and promotional help to the railway, including operation and maintenance tasks. The Association also attends various exhibitions with a large operating model of the railway as it was in the 1950s. Membership is open to all with an interest in the railway. Members receive an informative quarterly magazine, reduced rate travel on the railway and free admission to a series of interesting winter meetings held in Brighton. The Association also acts as a collector for Volk's memorabilia and ephemera, some of which can be seen at the South Downs Heritage Centre in Hassocks. The largest object now in the care of the Association is the ex Southend Car which between 1950 and 2000 carried the Volk's fleet number 9. Car 3 will become a two-year joint restoration project if the temporary restoration shed gains consent during spring 2014.
- "1883-1900". Volk's Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
- "1900-1940". Volk's Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
- "1947 onwards". Volk's Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
- Abell, Paul (August 2014). "£1.6M for Volk's Railway". Today's Railways UK (152) (Platform 5 Publishing Ltd). p. 71.
- "The Car Fleet". Volk's Electric Railway Association. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
- Iain D.O. Frew, ed. (1984). Britain's Electric Railways Today. Electric Railway Society and Southern Electric Group. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-0855340216.
- Jackson, Alan A. (1993). Volk's Railways, Brighton: An Illustrated History. Plateway Press. ISBN 978-1871980189.
- Smith, Derek (2010). Volks Electric Railway: A pictorial history. Chrisdel Books.
- Volk, Magnus (1972). Volk's electric railway, and how it is worked: particulars of the Brighton Electric Railway. ISBN 978-0900433467.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volk's Electric Railway.|
- Volks Railway information at Brighton & Hove City Council website
- Volk's Electric Railway Association
- Volks Railway Institute of Science and Technology
- Southern e-group photos
- Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1936), "Brighton's electric railway"", Railway Wonders of the World, pp. 604–608 illustrated description of the railway
- Map sources for: