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Volkswagen Golf Mk3

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Volkswagen Golf Mk3 (1H/1E)
Overview
ManufacturerVolkswagen
Production4.8 million units[1]
1991–1998
1994–2002 (convertible)
Assembly
Designer
Body and chassis
ClassSmall family car (C)
Body style3 / 5-door hatchback
5-door estate
2-door convertible
LayoutFront engine, front-wheel drive / Syncro four-wheel drive
PlatformVolkswagen Group A3 platform
RelatedVolkswagen Jetta
Volkswagen Vento
Powertrain
Engine
  • Petrol:
  • 1.4 L (ABD/AEX/APQ) I4
  • 1.6 L (ABU/AEA/AEE) I4
  • 1.6 L (AEK/AFT/AKS) I4
  • 1.8 L (AAM/ANN) I4
  • 1.8 L (ABS/ADZ/ACC/ANP) I4
  • 2.0 L (2E/ADY/AGG/AKR/ABA/AWG/AWF) I4
  • 2.0 L (ABF) 16v I4
  • 2.8 L (AAA) VR6
  • 2.9 L (ABV) VR6
  • Diesel:
  • 1.9 L 1Y I4
  • 1.9 L AEY SDI I4
  • 1.9 L AAZ TD I4
  • 1.9 L 1Z/ALE/AHU TDI I4
  • 1.9 L AFN/AVG TDI I4
Transmission4-speed automatic
4-speed / 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase1991-95: 2,471 mm (97.3 in)
1996-99: 2,474 mm (97.4 in)
Length4,074 mm (160.4 in)
Width1,694 mm (66.7 in)
Height1991-95 & Cabrio: 1,422 mm (56.0 in)
1996-99: 1,428 mm (56.2 in)
Chronology
PredecessorVolkswagen Golf Mk2
Volkswagen Golf Cabriolet Mk1 (Cabrio)
SuccessorVolkswagen Golf Mk4
Volkswagen New Beetle convertible (Cabrio)

The Volkswagen Golf Mk3 is a medium-sized compact family car. It's the third generation of the Volkswagen Golf and the successor to the Volkswagen Golf Mk2, which was produced by Volkswagen from August 1991 (for the 1992 model year) to 2002 (for Cabrio convertible).

The Golf Mk3 was launched in mainland Europe in August 1991,[2] in the United Kingdom in February 1992,[3] and in North America in the spring of 1994. The delay in North America was due to Volkswagen's decision to supply U.S. and Canadian dealerships with Mk3 Golfs (and A3 Jetta's) from the VW plant in Puebla, Mexico. Quality control problems led Volkswagen of America to reject Golfs and Jetta's from Mexico. Thereafter, labor unrest at the plant delayed production. The third-generation Golf and Jetta first launched in North America as 1993 models in the San Diego, California area and in Canada, then in the autumn in the rest of North America as 1994 models.

The Mk3 Cabrio replaced the Volkswagen Cabriolet. The Mk3 Cabrio continued until the 2002 model year, when Volkswagen replaced it with a convertible version of the Volkswagen New Beetle.[citation needed]

Like the previous two generations, the Mk3 was supposed to be built at the TAS factory in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, when the car was first released, the Yugoslav War broke out, leading to the destruction of the factory. Due to this, TAS went bankrupt in 1995. This meant the Mk3 was the only Golf before the Mk4 not to be built in Bosnia and Herzegovina, although a single Mk3 managed to roll off the assembly line in Sarajevo, its fate unknown.

The Mk3 Golf was sold in Japan alongside the Polo, where both vehicles complied with the small size class regulations that encouraged sales.

The Volkswagen Golf Mk3 began to be replaced with the October 1997 (1998 model year) introduction of the Volkswagen Golf Mk4. In some markets, the Mk3 Golf continued to be available for the 1998 model year (Americas, South Africa), and even as early 1999 model year vehicles (Canada, Mexico, US).

Body styles[edit]

Golf Variant

As for previous generations, the Golf was available as a three- or five-door hatchback. For the first time an estate was produced, being launched in early 1993, and bringing it into line with key competitors such as the Ford Escort and Vauxhall/Opel Astra, which had all long been available as estates. The name of three-box sedan (now only with four doors) changed to Vento, in an attempt to improve the Jetta's stodgy image in Europe. In North America, where the Jetta had no such problems, the old nameplate remained.[4]

In some markets, where the tax structure suited such a model, Volkswagen also offered a light commercial Van version of the three-door hatchback. Typically fitted with a flat plywood floor in the rear and often with blanked rear side windows, precise specifications varied for different markets to meet various local requirements for being classified as a commercial vehicle. In the United Kingdom, the Van was available only with the Umwelt ("Environment") engine, blanked rear windows, fabric interior, power steering, and a five-speed manual transmission. A petrol unit was available to special order.[5] The Umwelt diesel was Volkswagen's then-new 1.9-liter turbodiesel (AAZ), fitted with a catalytic converter and producing 75 PS (55 kW). Payload is 510 kg (1,124 lb).[6]

Cabriolet[edit]

The Volkswagen Golf Mk3 Cabrio (or Type 1E) was introduced in 1994 for the 1995 model year, replacing the previous MK1 Rabbit based Cabriolet. It was facelifted in 1998 (mid-1999 for non-euro markets) with the front, rear, and steering wheel styling inspired by the Golf Mk4 while still maintaining the body from the Mk3 Cabrio. These Cabrio's are often referred to as the Mk3.5 Cabrio's. The Volkswagen Golf Cabrio was discontinued in 2002 with a special edition called "Last Edition".

Performance models[edit]

Rear view

GTD[edit]

The Golf GTD is the diesel-powered variant of the high-performance GTI version.

A59[edit]

The Golf A59 prototype in the Volkswagen Museum

The cancelled Golf A59 was intended to be a 4WD model with a 275 hp (205 kW) turbocharged 1998cc engine, carbon fiber and Kevlar shell, and a full roll cage, and have the highest performance of the Mk3 Golf models.[7] The A59 was also supposed to be able to win the World Rally Championship in 1994.[8] The prototype can be seen at the Volkswagen Museum.[9]

Overview[edit]

1995–1996 Golf CL 3-door hatchback (Australia)
1993 Golf 5-door hatchback

A 16-valve version of the third-generation Golf GTI was introduced in 1993. The engine was enlarged to 2.0L, with power now reaching 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp). While lower powered than the VR6, it was still relatively popular with driving enthusiasts in Europe, because it offered ample power without the thirst or tax burden of the six-cylinder. As with previous versions, the Golf Driver acted as the official GTI-look-alike in the United Kingdom.[10] Similar to the continental market Golf GT, it looked sporting but was fitted with a single-point injected 1.8L engine.

Volkswagen Cabrio

The Golf Mk3 was also the predecessor of the "diesel craze" that swept through Europe in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when Volkswagen introduced the direct-injection system with the 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) Golf TDI in 1993.

From its launch, all versions of the Golf came with fuel injection, to meet EEC requirements that all new cars sold in member countries from January 1993 must come with fuel injection or a catalytic converter. Non-catalyzed models were also built for those markets where there was no interest in them; power outputs were the same as for the catalyzed models.[11] An all-new 1.4 petrol engine was the entry-level model in the MK3 Golf range.

Also offered was a naturally aspirated version of the 1.9-liter diesel engine, the SDI, offering 47 kW (64 PS; 63 hp).

Airbags were first offered on the Golf in 1992, and from 1996 anti-lock brakes were standard across the range.

The Golf Mk3 was also available in "Ecomatic" form. It was powered with a diesel engine and a clutch-less manual transmission. The vehicle would freewheel by opening of the clutch as soon as the accelerator is released, and the engine was switched off after a further 1.5 seconds of inactivity, whether by stopping or coasting. Restarting the engine simply required depressing the accelerator pedal.[12] VW had previously pioneered similar technology in the VW Polo "Formel E" in the 1980s.

Golf Mk3 Driver interior

As had happened with the Mk1 and Mk2, the Mk3 remained available in US for a year after it was discontinued in Europe (1998). The Mk3 continued to be produced for the 1999 model year where it was sold in North and South America. These 1999 Mk3 cars were the last produced in the world and sold alongside the Mk4 in showrooms.

Golf CitySTROMer[edit]

Battery pack under the hood of the electric Golf CitySTROMer.

There was also a limited production run of around 250 "CitySTROMer" vehicles, mainly sold to the German market, which were fully electric vehicles, incorporating six lead-acid batteries in the engine bay, and a further 10 underneath the luggage area. It had a range of approximately 50 km (31 mi). The vehicle could be filled with a small amount of diesel to provide heat for the cabin.[13][14]

Awards[edit]

Special editions[edit]

20th Anniversary GTI[edit]

Volkswagen produced a limited quantity of 1000 special-edition 3 and 5 door GTI Anniversary models, celebrating 20 years of the GTI model.[15] These models included the usual GTI specifications, but came equipped with special checkered Recaro front sport seats and matching rear seats bearing the GTI logo, red seat belts front and rear, half-chromed and leather golf ball gear knob, red stitched leather steering wheel and handbrake gaiter. The release knob on the hand brake was also red, and the instrument dials were silver. Floor mats also had red piping along their edges. The red theme continued externally with a red striping on the bumpers and red brake calipers. The wheels were 16" x 7" split rim BBS RS 722 alloys, visually similar to the 15" that were found on VR6 model.[16] The exhaust also featured brushed stainless-steel rear twin tailpipes, and the front fog and indicator lamps were smoked to match the rear lamps. Three optional extras were made available: electric sunroof, air conditioning and metallic black paintwork. Insurance was based on the standard GTI, making this version a very desirable model. The edition was sold in only 6 color schemes, and the 1000 number figures that were produced was as follows: 600 8 valve models, 150 16 valve models and 250 TDI models. The diesel model was only produced for the European market and was not sold in the UK. Many of the models fell into the UK company car and lease market prior to the second-hand market and it is believed only a few hundred still survive. However, another factor in the rarity of Mark 3 Golfs, unlike the excellent build quality of the Mark 2, at least in the UK, is the very low-quality steel sourced by VW on some occasions, and used across the range, from entry model to VR6. According to independent mechanics, parts specialists, and MOT testers, the floor-pan, both door sills, and rear hatch can suffer severe rot and disintegration, and anybody planning to buy one is advised to check for rot, holes and patches to the floor-pan.

Otmar Alt[edit]

The Gold Otmar Alt is a limited (1000 cars were built) edition version of the Golf. It featured various artworks from the artist Otmar Alt and a fully customized interior with the same graphics.

Rabbit[edit]

The Golf 3 Rabbit Edition was exclusive to Austria, and it featured a special rabbit badge.

Cool[edit]

The Golf Cool just featured a "Cool" sticker, like Avenue, and other minor design changes.

CitySTROMer[edit]

Front view

The Golf CitySTROMer was an alternative electric powered version of the Golf 3, which also featured colorful graphics on the side panels.

Highline[edit]

As the name suggests, the Golf Highline was the high end, premium version of the Mk3 Golf, and it shows that with a full leather interior, wood accents and a "Highline" sticker on the trunk.

Coast[edit]

Badge

The Golf Coast was a Cabrio-exclusive limited edition, and it featured the "Coast" graphic on the trunk.

Sport[edit]

Badge

Just like the name, it was the sporty version of the Golf 3, which also featured a "Sport Edition" sticker.

Classic[edit]

The Golf Classic had an overall retro look and a "Classic Edition" silicon badge.

Limited[edit]

Just like the "Edition" edition of the Golf 4 Variant, it came packed with special features and the "Limited Edition" graphic on the inside step with a similar font.

GTI / VR6 Edition[edit]

Golf GTI
Golf VR6

They featured their respective body-kit, "GTI/VR6 Edition" badges on the side and the GTI Edition also featured a sticker on the rear quarter panel that matches the font from the seats.

Kamei[edit]

"Kamei Edition" was a limited edition made by the Wolfsburg-based aftermarket body parts manufacturer Kamei. It had the full Kamei kit and a "Kamei Edition" badge on the grille, offset to the right side.

Ryder[edit]

It featured small design changes but did not have a sunroof.

Driver's Edition GTI VR6 (North America)[edit]

1997 Model Year. It came in two colors Ginster Yellow and Jazz Blue. It also had red stitching on the steering wheel, special half aluminum - half leather golf ball shift knob with GTI logo, silver gauge faces, 15" seven spoke alloy wheels made by Speedline and brake calipers painted red.[17] Most of the extras became standard on the 1998 GTI VR6 causing some confusion as to what a Driver's Edition is. The VIN can be used to confirm if a car is a Driver's Edition or not.

Henri Leconte[edit]

It featured a leather interior with signed seats and a sticker representing 3D ball breaking the glass on the rear window.

Henri Lloyd Yachting[edit]

The GT based edition had a special front lip, rear bumper extension and a special grille, besides the rear badge.

Driver[edit]

This regular Golf 3 received the GTI body-kit, together with the "Orlando" alloy rims and a small trunk spoiler.

SE[edit]

Produced from 1996 to 1997 for the UK market, the SE featured a GTI body-kit, all round tinted glass, clear front indicator covers, twin headlamp lenses and GTI taillights, silver instrument cluster and Sport Räder alloy wheels.

Match[edit]

This version came pre-packed with a Sony CD player, power steering, 6 spoke rims and "Match" graphics ("///Match" written on the sides near the front wheel arch and above the guard rail, and only the three "///" blue, red and green lines below the right taillight.)

Match II[edit]

Just like the first "Match" it featured "Match II" graphics, but this time in the shape of a metallic badge under the "Golf" and "TDI" logos. It also featured a custom interior with a unique fabric design.

Colour Concept[edit]

Badge

Was a highly limited edition made in only 5 colors (Flash Red, Salsa Green, Yellow, Jazz Blue Pearl Effect and Black Magic Pearl Effect) and a few of each produced. They featured a leather interior matching the outside color (with Color Concept embossed on the front seats) and the Color Concept badge. 15-inch BBS Solitude alloy wheels were included, as were electric windows, central locking and front seat heating. The Color Concept was available on the Cabriolet and Estate (Variant) version of the Golf as well.

Family[edit]

It was just the regular Golf MK3, but only with a custom sticker and a few other minor differences.

Harlequin[edit]

Golf Harlequin, Ginster Yellow (after its 'base' color)

The Golf Harlequin model began with a group of four cars, each carrying a Design Series emblem, created by Volkswagen to display on the 1995 international auto show circuit.

Basing the design on an earlier Volkswagen Polo Harlequin special edition, the Golf Harlequins were created in four variations, by taking four solid color models and interchanging the easily detachable doors, hood, hatch, grill, fenders and bumper facias — after final production at the Puebla, Mexico assembly plant where all the Harlequins were manufactured.

The interchangement of colors — Tornado Red, Ginster Yellow, Chagall Blue, and Pistachio Green — was not random, but followed four defined assignments, with each pattern avoiding adjacent major panels sharing the same paint color.[18]

Chagall Blue, and Pistachio Green were otherwise unavailable as a Golf paint color choice in North America.

The resulting Harlequins were designated by their "base" color, the paint color of the welded panels comprising the core body — including the substructure, roof and C-pillar.[19]

Following a positive response to the original four Harlequins, Volkswagen marketed an additional 60 — followed by another 200.

In a series of follow up letters to various entities at Volkswagen, the total number of Harlequins is reported variously from 275 to 264, all offered solely for model year 1996, in the United States, Canada,[20] and Mexico — with most marketed in the United States.

Each Harlequin Golf featured a gray/black interior highlighting the four body colors. The special edition was available for an additional $150 over their stock counterparts.

TREK / K2 Editions[edit]

In 1997, a marketing effort with TREK on the Jetta Mk3 was expanded to include the Golf Mk3. The TREK edition came with a roof bike carrier, a 21-speed purple TREK-Volkswagen branded mountain bike, and a TREK 'Limited Edition' badge.

Also in 1997, the other special edition, The K2, came with a ski/snowboard roof carrier, a K2 "Limited Edition" badge, and either a pair of K2 El Camino skis, or a K2 Juju snowboard.

Both TREK and K2 editions also included special Recaro manufactured seats, 14” alloy wheels, tinted taillights, special “TREK” or “K2” shift knobs, optional moonroof, roof-mounted antenna, and fog lights.[21]

Wolfsburg Edition[edit]

A Wolfsburg Edition was produced alongside other Mk3 "Wolfsburg Edition" Jetta's in the United States. Like the Wolfsburg Edition Jetta, Mk3 Golfs with the Wolfsburg package came standard with an improved white/tan dual-tone interior, smoked tail-lamps, premium alloy wheels, remote entry, power windows/mirrors, and a tilt/slide sunroof. The Wolfsburg Edition was only available with the VW 8-valve SOHC 2.0L engine.

European tour editions[edit]

During the 1990s, Volkswagen sponsored three high-profile rock bands' European tours, and issued a special-edition Golf, with distinctive exterior markings, for each: the Golf Pink Floyd Edition (1994), the Golf Rolling Stones Edition (1995), and the Golf Bon Jovi Edition (1996).

European Car of the Year[edit]

The Golf MK3 was voted European Car of the Year for 1992 - the first Volkswagen to win this award.[22]

Engine choices[edit]

Name Volume Engine Fuel Power (max.) Torque (max.) Model 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph) (s) Top speed Years
1.4 1391 cc I4 Petrol 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) at 5200 rpm 107 N⋅m (79 lb⋅ft) at 2800−3200 rpm ABD 16.3 157 km/h (98 mph) 1992−1995
1.4 1390 cc I4 Petrol 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) at 4700 rpm 116 N⋅m (86 lb⋅ft) at 2800−3200 rpm AEX/APQ 15.9 158 km/h (98 mph) 1995−1997
1.6 1598 cc I4 Petrol 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) at 5200 rpm 125 N⋅m (92 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm ABU   168 km/h (104 mph) 1992−1994
1.6 1598 cc I4 Petrol 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) at 5200 rpm 126 N⋅m (93 lb⋅ft) at 2600 rpm AEA   168 km/h (104 mph) 1994−1995
1.6 1598 cc I4 Petrol 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) at 4800 rpm 135 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 2800−3600 rpm AEE 13.4 168 km/h (104 mph) 1995−1997
1.6 1595 cc I4 Petrol 101 PS (74 kW; 100 hp) at 5800 rpm 135 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 4400 rpm AEK   188 km/h (117 mph) 1994−1995
1.6 1595 cc I4 Petrol 101 PS (74 kW; 100 hp) at 5800 rpm 140 N⋅m (103 lbf⋅ft) at 3500 rpm AFT/AKS 11.2 188 km/h (117 mph) 1995−1997
1.8 1781 cc I4 Petrol 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) at 5000 rpm 140 N⋅m (103 lbf⋅ft) at 2500 rpm AAM/ANN 14.2 168 km/h (104 mph) 1992−1997
1.8 1781 cc I4 Petrol 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) at 5500 rpm 145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft) at 2500 rpm ABS/ADZ/ANP/ACC 12.1 178 km/h (111 mph) 1992−1997
2.0 GTI 1984 cc I4 Petrol 118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp) at 5400 rpm 166 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft) at 3200 rpm 2E/ABA/ADY/AGG 9.7 210 km/h (130 mph) 1992−1997
2.0 GTI 16V 1984 cc I4 Petrol 152 PS (112 kW; 150 hp) at 6000 rpm 180 N⋅m (133 lbf⋅ft) at 4600 rpm ABF 8.1 225 km/h (140 mph) 1993−1997
2.8 VR6 2792 cc VR6 Petrol 176 PS (129 kW; 174 hp) at 5800 rpm 235 N⋅m (173 lb⋅ft) at 4200 rpm AAA 7.5 240 km/h (149 mph) 1992−1998
2.9 VR6 2861 cc VR6 Petrol 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp) at 5800 rpm 245 N⋅m (181 lb⋅ft) at 4200 rpm ABV 6.7 250 km/h (155 mph) 1994−1997
1.9 D 1896 cc I4 Diesel 64 PS (47 kW; 63 hp) at 4400 rpm 124 N⋅m (91 lb⋅ft) at 2000−3000 rpm 1Y 17.6 156 km/h (97 mph) 1992−1997
1.9 SDI 1896 cc I4 Diesel 64 PS (47 kW; 63 hp) at 4200 rpm 125 N⋅m (92 lb⋅ft) at 2200−2800 rpm AEY 17.6 156 km/h (97 mph) 1995−1997
1.9 TD 1896 cc I4 Diesel 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) at 4200 rpm 150 N⋅m (111 lbf⋅ft) at 2400−3400 rpm AAZ 15.1 165 km/h (103 mph) 1992−1997
1.9 TDI 1896 cc I4 Diesel 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) at 4000 rpm 202 N⋅m (149 lb⋅ft) at 1900 rpm 1Z 12.5 178 km/h (111 mph) 1993−1996
1.9 TDI 1896 cc I4 Diesel 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) at 4000 rpm 202 N⋅m (149 lbf⋅ft) at 1900 rpm AHU 12.5 178 km/h (111 mph) 1996−1997
1.9 TDI 1896 cc I4 Diesel 110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp) at 4150 rpm 235 N⋅m (173 lb⋅ft) at 1900 rpm AFN 11.0 193 km/h (120 mph) 1996−1997

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Christian; Jeske, Beate (2008). Auto Motor und Sport Heft 18 Seite 24. Stuttgart.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. ^ "News Articles". Volkswagen UK. Archived from the original on 4 December 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  3. ^ Crouch, Jonathan, Volkswagen Golf MK 2 & MK 3 (1984 - 1998) used car review, RAC Motoring Services, archived from the original on 20 May 2016, retrieved 13 May 2016
  4. ^ Plumb, Steven E. (March 1992). "VW Jetta replacement coming next fall". Ward's Auto World.
  5. ^ Coughlan, Danny (22 October 1992). "Vans on Test: Volkswagen Golf Van". Commercial Motor. Vol. 176, no. 4495. p. 19.
  6. ^ Coughlan 1992, p. 18.
  7. ^ "VW Brought This Obscure Golf Rally Prototype to SEMA, and It's Awesome". Car and Driver. 1 November 2022. Archived from the original on 20 July 2023.
  8. ^ Pappas, Thanos (4 November 2022). "1993 VW Golf "Rallye" Prototype Is A WRC Homologation Special That Never Reached Production". Carscoops. Archived from the original on 5 November 2022. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  9. ^ "One-Off VW Golf A59 Rally Prototype Wows at SEMA". MotorTrend. 4 November 2022. Archived from the original on 20 July 2023.
  10. ^ Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1994 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. 1994. p. 591.
  11. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (5 March 1992). Automobil Revue 1992 (in German and French). Vol. 87. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 574. ISBN 3-444-00539-3.
  12. ^ "The Golf Ecomatic Page". Deylan.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  13. ^ "Per Magnar Skånøy's 1995 Volkswagen Golf CityStromer". Evalbum.com. 22 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  14. ^ "Electric Heritage". Volkswagen UK. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  15. ^ Chitulescu, Dragos (13 February 2021). "25-Year Ban on This Special Edition VW Golf GTI Is Over, Still Reasonably Priced". autoevolution. Archived from the original on 20 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Volkswagen 20th Anniversary GTI". Car and Driver. 31 January 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2024.
  17. ^ Volkswagen Driver's Edition GTI-VR6 brochure, VWDI7008-001_US/CE/97, 1997
  18. ^ "Volkswagen Golf Harlequin: VW's Strangest Idea?". 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  19. ^ Martin, Taylor (18 September 2021). "What Is Volkswagen's Harlequin Car, and How Did It Start?". Archived from the original on 20 July 2023.
  20. ^ "How many of these are there?". rossvw.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  21. ^ Clemens, Kevin (226). VW GTI, Golf, Jetta, MK III & IV. Motorbooks International. p. 33. ISBN 9781610592475. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  22. ^ "Previous winners" (in Spanish). Car of the year. Archived from the original on 31 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2010.

External links[edit]

Preceded by Volkswagen Golf Mk3
1992–2002
Succeeded by