International volunteering

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International volunteering is when volunteers contribute their time to work for organisations or causes outside their respective home countries. In most such cases, volunteers work in developing countries on international development programmes with local volunteer organisations that conduct activities such as health promotion, education and environmental conservation.[1] Trends show that international volunteering has become increasingly popular across many countries over the past few decades.[2] International volunteering is a broad term which is used to capture multi-year, skilled placements as well as short term roles, recently termed voluntourism, and a range of activities in between conducted by governments, charities and travel agents.[3]

History[edit]

Formal overseas volunteering can be traced back over one hundred years to when the British Red Cross set up the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) scheme in 1909.[4] The VAD volunteers, as well as volunteers from many other national Red Cross organisations, worked in battlefields across Europe and the Middle East during World War I to treat soldiers and civilians regardless of the side they fought for.[5]

Eleanor Roosevelt and President John F. Kennedy discuss the Peace Corps, 1961.

Up to the mid-20th century overseas volunteering projects were mainly undertaken by people with direct connections to a particular cause and were considered more as short term in nature.[6] The more formal inception of international volunteering organisations can be linked to organisations such as Australian Volunteers International (formerly the Volunteer Graduate Scheme) which formed in 1951, International Voluntary Services in 1953 in the United States, and Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO) in 1958 the United Kingdom.[7][8][9] These services and that of the U.S. Peace Corps, established in 1961 during the Kennedy administration, paved the way for broader recognition of overseas volunteering in later years.[10] During the 1960s and 1970s a movement of volunteerism and study abroad programs became popular among university students and graduates and the United Nations launched the UN Volunteers programme for young professionals to take part in a long-term (two year plus) overseas programme.[11]

In recent years the accessibility of international volunteering has increased significantly with many smaller charities connecting volunteers with non-governmental organisations in developing countries. Travel companies have also increasingly been offering paid-for volunteering opportunities, this growth coincided with the increasing number of young people taking gap years and has been termed volunteer tourism and voluntourism to denote shorter-term voluntary work that is not necessarily the sole purpose of the trip.[3] However, many opportunities medium- and long-term opportunities for skilled international volunteers remain, for example, the publicised role of volunteers in addressing the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.[12]

Volunteer base[edit]

International volunteering appeals to a broad cross-section of society, but the majority of volunteers are in their twenties and thirties, potentially due to perceptions of volunteering abroad being a more risky activity.[13] The average age of VSO volunteers, however, is 38, showing a broad range of participation across age groups.[14] Many participants use these trips to boost their resumes, travel with friends, gain world experience, and see new countries. Recently there has been an increase in baby boomer volunteers.[citation needed] One possible explanation for the increase is that these people are transitioning into a new stage of life and their focus may shift toward finding activities that give their life new meaning. Shorter-term voluntourism is therefore appealing to some, as it is targeted at travellers who want to make a positive change in the world, while still providing a touristic experience.[15] People generally volunteer in order to increase their international awareness, to contextualize poverty and its effects, as an education opportunity, and to help people while having a morally rewarding experience. Many believe that the trip will change the way they think when they return home. However, others are just looking to give to others and do not believe that their experience will cause them to think twice about their lives back home.[16]

Critiques and challenges[edit]

Certain critiques and challenges are associated with international volunteering.

Outcomes[edit]

Measuring the outcomes of international volunteering is an ongoing challenge. Sometimes the costs invested in these partnerships are high. The intangible nature of impact and outcomes is hard to measure and research has been proposed in this area.[17] Similarly, how to measure the success of a volunteer and the supporting organisation's performance is complicated.[18] To allow volunteers to integrate properly into the community, it is essential that volunteers have some useful skills and are reasonably well-informed and trained before the placement.[19] Shannon O'Donnell, a vocal critic of poorly designed international programs, contends that many volunteer organizations compromise the dignity of local populations—these programs often foster a cyclical dependency international volunteers within the communities the programs are designed to serve.[20]

Costs[edit]

Related to the impact of international volunteering, the cost of having an international volunteer has been cited as another area of concern, especially costs for air tickets, allowances, insurance, training and logistics. Local staff do require such costs, and the local organisations could put these funds into more important issues; however, many volunteers pay these expenses personally.[1] Some institutions provide scholarships for international volunteering.[21]

Volunteers are far cheaper than other forms of long-term technical assistance because they live and work under local conditions. Expatriates who work in the same capacity can be paid multiple times more than any allowances volunteers receive (if any).[18] The cost-benefit of international volunteers is hard to quantify, though studies have highlighted improvements in well-being and inter-cultural understanding in communities and schools as a result of international exchanges and volunteers.[22]

Integration in the workplace[edit]

A consideration is that volunteers may dominate the workplace, undermine local management and work culture especially in small organisations. This is due to volunteers often being considered more highly educated than local staff, even if they do not have direct experience. Coming from a different culture can also lead to volunteers imposing their values on organisations.[18]

Indeed, volunteers can have a strong influence on organisations, especially those who deal with governance and management. However, volunteers are often trained to respect the local working culture and ethics.[14] Also, since they report directly to local organisations, they can have their contracts terminated if they break any local regulations, which further minimises the fear of domination.[18]

Skills, experience and understanding of local context[edit]

International volunteers from outside the host community can lack an understanding of the local context and sometimes may not have the correct skill-set to achieve their project goal.[18] There is sometimes a vetting or selection process for volunteers before they are recruited to serve in developing countries, but this process has at times been found wanting.[23] According to some,[who?] international volunteers today receive significant training before and often during their placement which can address this deficit.[14] Others counter that there are countless multinational organizations offering unskilled volunteer placements to any participant willing to pay the placement fee. In these circumstances, there is conflict about whether the fees volunteers pay justify the time spent supervising and revising their work, and if a sufficient portion of the fees make it into the local communities hosting volunteers.[24]

A group of European Voluntary Service volunteers during training

Motivations of volunteers[edit]

People volunteer for many reasons, but seldom does anyone volunteer strictly for monetary reasons, as very few organisations offer a stipend for volunteering.[1] More compelling motives include experiencing another culture, meeting new people, and advancing one's career prospects. Such motivations are common among younger volunteers who are looking for experience or direction in their careers.[23]

A common motivation is to "make a difference"[1] and to "achieve something positive for others"[25] who are less fortunate than the volunteer. Many volunteers tend to concur that there are disadvantaged people in their home countries, but the scale of disadvantage outside their home countries is felt to be greater. Volunteering at home may elicit images of helping the less fortunate, or campaigning with a local pressure group.[25] Volunteering abroad has tended to be associated with international development and bridging the divide between the rich and poor worlds. Volunteering abroad often seems a more worthy contribution in this context to the volunteers than work in their own country. This perspective is particularly true of volunteers who are older and looking for something more value-based as they near the end of their professional careers or after their children have left home.[1]

Neo-colonialism[edit]

There have been allegations from some quarters of neo-colonial advances disguised as an effort to tackle poverty, as some volunteer organisations are connected to national governments, e.g. the Peace Corps, which was set up by the American government.[26] Despite this challenge, most volunteer organisations are non-governmental (NGOs) and are not influenced by government policies.[18] The present structures of international volunteering are also often aimed at impacts on a local, community scale which is sharply in contrast with the macro-political government strategies of the colonial era.[26]

However, many academic journals elaborate that volunteers often have little knowledge or expertise in the work they do when volunteering abroad. This has raised concerns of its value. Frances Brown and Derek Hall write that this creates a neo-colonial narrative. They say the volunteer perspective is framed around the idea that Westerners with minimal experience can effect change in the Global South, just by nature of being from the West.[27] This perpetuates the narrative of Western domination in a post-colonial world, and the need to "save" and "help" the Global South.[28]

Voluntourism: criticisms[edit]

Volunteer tourism, also known as "voluntourism", is a specific kind of international volunteering.[29] It is characterized as being conducted by profit-making companies rather than charities, by the age of the participants, and by the length of time they volunteer abroad.[30] Participants are often young adults (ages 15–30), the length of the trip is under a month, and the volunteering is regularly packaged with adventure and travel activities. Voluntourism has undergone intense scrutiny over the course of the 2000s, and an increasing number of academic papers question volunteer tourists' motivations and experiences.[30]

Volunteer-sending organizations, such as Free The Children's Me to We trips and the British company Projects-abroad, have been critiqued as furthering the aforementioned neo-colonial narrative to youth. The increased prevalence of promotional material regarding trips to "help" the Global South has "increased media exposure in the Global North to poverty in the Global South."[31] Critics argue that the way in which these organizations advertise their trips stigmatizes and frames the developing world as helpless. This plays into Maria Eriksson Baaz's theories in the book Paternalism of Partnership: a Postcolonial Reading of Identity in Development Aid, in which she discusses discourse that frames the volunteer as a developed, paternalistic individual and the donor as underdeveloped.[32] The framing and "othering" of cultures outside the West and Global North can also be found in Edward Said's text, Orientalism. His theory is rooted in the same idea, in which he describes West's patronizing portrayals of the East.

Other criticisms of the voluntourism industry are that not only are short-term volunteers often untrained in the projects they participate in (building schools, health centres, wells),[33][34][35] but that projects can fuel conflict among communities,[36] offer bandaid solutions, replace work locals could be doing, and reinforce neoliberal policies. Children in these communities may become dependent and commodified when volunteers are constantly arriving and departing every couple weeks. The rhetoric of such volunteer-sending organizations has also been argued to inform a "consumer-capitalist"[37][38] culture that plays to the wants and needs of the privileged North, at the disadvantage of the Global South.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Palmer, Michael. “On the Pros and Cons of Volunteering Abroad.Development in Practice, vol. 12, no. 5, 2002, pp. 637–643.
  2. ^ Anheier, H. K., & Salamon, L. M. (1999). Volunteering in cross-national perspective: Initial comparisons. Law and Contemporary Problems, 43-65.
  3. ^ a b "'Making a Difference': Volunteer Tourism and Development" (PDF). St. Mary's University College. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  4. ^ "War-time volunteers and personnel records". British Red Cross. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  5. ^ "What did the British Red Cross do during the First World War" (PDF). British Red Cross. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  6. ^ McGray, Douglas (February 2004). "Going the Distance". Travel and Leisure Magazine. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  7. ^ "Our Story". Australian Volunteers International. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  8. ^ International Voluntary Services. International Voluntary Services: 1953-2003. Harpers Ferry, WV: International Voluntary Services Alumni Association, 2003. Print.
  9. ^ Critical Perspectives on Service-Learning in Higher Education. p. 16. ISBN 9781137383259. 
  10. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  11. ^ "UNV Factsheet 2015" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  12. ^ "Ebola volunteers - what you need to know". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  13. ^ Moore, Amanda. "Access to International Volunteering" (PDF). Washington University. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c Burns, L. "Role of Volunteering in Sustainable Development" (PDF). VSO. VSO & Institute of Development Studies. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  15. ^ Rogers, Mark (2007-09-17). "Voluntourism is on the Rise". Travel Agent. 331 (3): 20–4. 
  16. ^ "Youth as Voluntourists: A Case Study of Youth Volunteering in Guatemala". Undercurrent: The Canadian Undergraduate Journal of Development Studies. 7 (3). Fall–Winter 2011. 
  17. ^ Sherraden, M. S., Lough, B., & McBride, A. M. (2008). Effects of international volunteering and service: Individual and institutional predictors. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 19(4), 395-421.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Devereux, P. (2008). International volunteering for development and sustainability: outdated paternalism or a radical response to globalisation?. Development in Practice, 18(3), 357-370.
  19. ^ Raymond, Eliza; Michael Hall (2008). "The Development of Cross-Cultural (Mis)Understanding Through Volunteer Tourism". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 16 (5): 530–543. doi:10.2167/jost796.0. 
  20. ^ O'Donnell, Shannon (31 July 2016). "The Psychology and Ethics of International Volunteering". Grassroots Volunteering. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  21. ^ "Volunteer Abroad Programs". maximonivel.com. Maximo Nivel. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  22. ^ Lough, B.; Matthews, L. (2013). Forum Discussion Paper: Measuring and Conveying the Added Value of International Volunteering (PDF). Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  23. ^ a b Mangold, K. (2012). ‘Struggling to Do the Right Thing’: challenges during international volunteering. Third World Quarterly, 33(8), 1493-1509.
  24. ^ Shannon O'Donnell. "The Volunteer Traveler's Handbook," Full Flight Press, 2012.
  25. ^ a b Rehberg, W. (2005). Altruistic individualists: Motivations for international volunteering among young adults in Switzerland. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 16(2), 109-122.
  26. ^ a b "'Making a Difference': Volunteer Tourism and Development" (PDF). St. Mary's University College. Retrieved 16 April 2015. 
  27. ^ Brown, Frances; Hall, Derek (2008-07-01). "Tourism and Development in the Global South: the issues". Third World Quarterly. 29 (5): 839–849. doi:10.1080/01436590802105967. ISSN 0143-6597. 
  28. ^ Palacios, Carlos M. (2010-08-20). "Volunteer tourism, development and education in a postcolonial world: conceiving global connections beyond aid". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 18 (7): 861–878. doi:10.1080/09669581003782739. ISSN 0966-9582. 
  29. ^ Buchmayer, Kelsey (2017). "Voluntourism Discourse: A Case Study of ME to WE". School of International Development and Global Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa. 
  30. ^ a b Butcher, Jim; Smith, Peter (2010). "'Making a Difference': Volunteer Tourism and Development". Tourism Recreation Research. 35 (1): 27–36. 
  31. ^ Zeddies, Margaret; Millei, Zsuzsa. ""It takes a global village": Troubling discourses of global citizenship in United Planet's voluntourism". Global Studies of Childhood. 5 (1): 100–111. doi:10.1177/2043610615573383. 
  32. ^ Baaz, Maria Eriksson (2005). The Paternalism of Partnership: A Postcolonial Reading of Identity in Development Aid. Zed Books. 
  33. ^ Herrmann, S (2011). "Holding on to transformation: Reflections on global service learning". Critical Service-Learning as Revolutionary Pedagogy: 273–296. 
  34. ^ Guttentag, D (2009). "The possible negative impacts of volunteer tourism". International Journal of Tourism Research. 11: 145–158. 
  35. ^ Simpson, K (2005). "Doing Development: the gap year, volunteer tourists and a popular practice of development". Journal of International Development. 16 (5): 681–692. 
  36. ^ Doerr, E (2011). "Cognitive dissonance in international service-learning: Possibilities and challenges for service-learning pedagogy". Critical Service-Learning as Revolutionary Pedagogy: 71–94. 
  37. ^ Jefferess, David (2012). "The "Me to We" social enterprise: Global education as lifestyle brand". Critical Literacy: Theories and Practices. 6: 1. 
  38. ^ Birrell, I (2010). "Before you pay to volunteer abroad, think of the harm you might do". The Guardian.