Volvo Modular engine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Volvo Modular Engine
B5252S.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Volvo Cars
Production 1990–2016[1]
Layout
Configuration I4, I5, I6
Displacement 1.6 L – 2.9 L
Cylinder block alloy Aluminium
Cylinder head alloy Aluminium
Valvetrain DOHC
Combustion
Fuel system Fuel injection
Management
Fuel type
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Emissions
Emissions target standard
Emissions control technology
Chronology
Predecessor
Successor

The Volvo Modular Engine is a family of straight-four, straight-five, and straight-six automobile piston engines that was produced by Volvo Cars in Skövde,[15] Sweden from 1990[16] until 2016. All engines feature an aluminum engine block and aluminum cylinder head, forged steel connecting rods, aluminum pistons and double overhead camshafts.[16]

History[edit]

The Volvo Modular Engine was developed as part of Project Galaxy[17][18] which began in the late 1970s.[19][20] The prototype engines called X-100[21] had only four cylinders[22] but already featured the sandwich and all aluminum construction of the later production variants.[23][24] Early prototypes of the X-100 were designed similar to the existing redblock engines with a single camshaft and the oilfilter mounted on the side of the engine rather than the bottom.[25]

The first available engine was the B6304F[26] which debuted in August 1990 in the Volvo 960.[16] A year later, with the introduction of the Volvo 850 in June 1991, the first five-cylinder variant in form of the B5254F[16][27][28] hit the market. It was equipped with V-VIS[29] (Volvo Variable Intake System) which was designed to improve engine response between 1500–4100 rpm. V-VIS was only available on naturally aspirated 20V engines with the Bosch LH-3.2/EZ-129K engine management. The system was discontinued after model year 1996.[30][31] In 1995[32] with the launch of the Volvo S40 the four-cylinder B4184S and B4204S engines[33] were released.[34] The same year Volvo shared the B4204S and B5244S engines with Renault, who used them in the Laguna and Safrane models under the name N7Q and N7U.
In 1998, with the introduction of the 1999 model year S80,[35] Volvo began to transition to updated versions of their N-series engines,[36] now called RN,[37][11] short for revised N.[38] Drive-by-wire, coil-on-plug systems and variable valve timing (VVT)[39] were introduced along with new engine management systems.[39][40] 10 valve engines were slowly phased out in favour of detuned 20 valve versions.[41]

With the introduction of the second generation S40 in 2003 another update to the engine family took place. The new engine was called RNC,[42][43] the 'C' standing for 'compact' to emphasise the decrease in overall dimensions. Compared to the previous generation the new engine was 200mm slimmer[nb 2] and 25mm shorter. On turbocharged engines the exhaust manifold and turbine housing were now combined into one part; all engines were equipped with plastic intake manifolds and continuously variable valve timing (CVVT).[44]
The RN engines remained in production alongside the RNC engines and were slowly phased out, beginning with the introduction of the second generation S80 in 2006. The new SI6 engine family[45] was introduced to replace the 6-cylinder variants of the Volvo Modular Engine at the same time.[46]

Nomenclature[edit]

The engine codes consist of a series of letters and digits:

  • 1st: Fuel type (B/D/GB) B = Bensin (Petrol), D = Diesel, GB[47][nb 3] = Gas & Bensin
  • 2nd: Number of cylinders (4/5/6)
  • 3rd & 4th: Approximate displacement in deciliters, may be rounded up or down. (23 ~= 2.3 L)
  • 5th: Valves per cylinder (2/4)
  • 6th: Induction method (S/T/F/G/GS/FS/FT/SG) S = standard (naturally aspirated), T = turbocharged, F = fuel injection with catalytic converter, G[48] = leaded fuel compatible, GS[49] = leaded fuel compatible, naturally aspirated, FS = fuel injected standard (naturally aspirated) with catalytic converter, FT = fuel injected, turbocharged with catalytic converter, SG[50] = standard (naturally aspirated) compatible with alternative fuels (LPG / CNG)
  • 7th: Engine generation or engine variant (2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10/11)

Engine codes are not necessarily unique to a specific engine as power levels can vary depending on market, manufacturer and model.

1.6[edit]

B4164S[edit]

The B4164S[51] is a 1.6 L (1,588 cc) straight-four.[52] Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp)[53] at 5500 rpm with 143 N⋅m (105 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4200 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.1 engine management.[54]

Applications:

B4164S2[edit]

The B4164S2[56] is a 1.6 L (1,587 cc) straight-four. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 10:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 109 PS (80 kW; 108 hp) at 5800 rpm with 145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm. It features intake cam VVT.

Applications:

1.8[edit]

B4184S[edit]

The B4184S[58] is a 1.8 L (1,731 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 80.0 mm (3.1 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)[54] at 5500 rpm with 165 N⋅m (122 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4100 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.1 engine management.[54]

Applications:

  • 1995–1999 Volvo S40 badged as S40 1.8 or S40 1.8 16V
  • 1995–1999 Volvo V40 badged as V40 1.8 or V40 1.8 16V

B4184S2[edit]

The B4184S2 is a 1.8 L (1,783 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 82.4 mm (3.2 in). It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 122 hp (91 kW; 124 PS) at 5800 rpm with 170 N⋅m (130 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm. It features intake cam VVT.

Applications:

  • 1999–2004 Volvo S40 badged as S40 1.8i or S40 1.8i SE
  • 1999–2004 Volvo V40 badged as V40 1.8i or V40 1.8i SE

B4184S3[edit]

The B4184S3 is a 1.8 L (1,783 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 82.4 mm (3.2 in). It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 116 hp (87 kW; 118 PS) at 5500 rpm with 170 N⋅m (130 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm.

Applications:

1.9[edit]

B4194T[edit]

The B4194T[59] is a 1.9 L (1,855 cc) straight-four. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 5500 rpm with 300 N⋅m (220 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2400–3600 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens EMS 2000 engine management[60] and is equipped with a TD04L-14T turbocharger.

Specifications:

  • Rod length: 139.5 mm (5.5 in)

Applications:

B4204S[edit]

The B4204S is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 6000 rpm with 183 N⋅m (135 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.1 engine management.

Applications:[61]

B4204S2[edit]

The B4204S2 is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in). It is naturally aspirated.

B4204T[edit]

The B4204T is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 160 PS (118 kW; 158 hp)[62] at 5100 rpm, and produces 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–4800 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens EMS 2000 engine management[60] and is equipped with a TD04L-12T turbocharger.

Applications:

B4204T2[edit]

The B4204T2 is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in). It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 160 PS (118 kW; 158 hp) at 5100 rpm[63] with 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft)[63] of torque at 1800–4800 rpm.

Applications:[63]

B4204T3[edit]

The B4204T3[64] is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in). It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 161 hp (120 kW; 163 PS) at 5250 rpm with 240 N⋅m (180 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–4500 rpm.

Applications:[65]

B4204T4[edit]

The B4204T4[66][67] is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in). It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS) at 5500 rpm[66] with 240 N⋅m (180 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–5000 rpm.[66] It is equipped with a TD04 12T turbocharger.

Applications:

B4204T5[edit]

The B4204T5 is a 1.9 L (1,948 cc) straight-four.[70] Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in). It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 197 hp (147 kW; 200 PS) at 5500 rpm with 300 N⋅m (220 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2500–4000 rpm.

Applications:[71]

2.0[edit]

B5202S[edit]

The B5202S[72] is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. It naturally aspirated with a power output of 126 PS (93 kW; 124 hp) at 6250 rpm and produces 170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4800 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.2 engine management.

Applications:[73][74]

B5202FS[edit]

The B5202FS is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. It naturally aspirated with a power output of 126 PS (93 kW; 124 hp) at 6250 rpm and produces 170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4800 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.2 engine management.

Applications:

B5204S[edit]

The B5204S[76] is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in). It is naturally aspirated.

Applications:

B5204FS[edit]

The B5204FS is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Compression ratio of 10.3:1.[77] It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 143 PS (105 kW; 141 hp) at 6500 rpm with 176 N⋅m (130 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3800 rpm.[77] It is equipped with Bosch LH-3.2/EZ-129K engine management.

Applications:

B5204FT[edit]

The B5204FT is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled.

Applications:

B5204T[edit]

The B5204T[78] is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 8.4:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 210 PS (154 kW; 207 hp), and produces 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) of torque. It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.3 engine management. It was offered only in Italy[78], Taiwan[78] and Iceland due to local tax laws.

Applications:

  • 1994–1997 Volvo 850 badged as 850 T-5 (2.0)

B5204T2[edit]

The B5204T2[72] is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 8.4:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) at 5700 rpm, and produces 220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2100–5400 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management.

Applications:

B5204T3[edit]

The B5204T3[79] is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 8.4:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 225 PS (165 kW; 222 hp) at 5700 rpm and 310 N⋅m (229 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2700–5100 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management for model years 1997 and 1998. It is equipped with Bosch ME7 for model years 1999 and 2000. It was only offered in Italy[78], Portugal[78] and Taiwan[78] due to high taxes on cars with more than 2000 cc engine capacity.

Applications:

B5204T4[edit]

The B5204T4[79] is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 9.5:1.[82] It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 163 PS (120 kW; 161 hp) at 5100 rpm, and produces 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–5000 rpm.

Applications:[83]

B5204T5[edit]

The B5204T5 is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 9.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) at 5300 rpm, and produces 240 N⋅m (180 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2000–5300 rpm.

Applications:[86]

B5204T8[edit]

The B5204T8 is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) at 5000 rpm, and produces 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2700–4200 rpm.[89]

Applications:[90]

B5204T9[edit]

The B5204T9 is a 2.0 L (1,984 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 77 mm (3.0 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 213 PS (157 kW; 210 hp)[92] at 6000 rpm, and produces 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2700–5000 rpm.

Applications:[93]

2.3[edit]

B5234FS[edit]

The B5234FS is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. It is naturally aspirated and was only available on Thai market cars.

Applications:

B5234T[edit]

The B5234T[95] is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 225 PS (165 kW; 222 hp)[96][97] at 5200 rpm and 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) of torque between 2000–5200 rpm.[95] It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.3 engine management.

Applications:

B5234T2[edit]

The B5234T2 is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 218 PS (160 kW; 215 hp)[78] at 5100 rpm and 330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2700–4500 rpm.[78] It was only available on Thai market cars.

Applications:

B5234T3[edit]

The B5234T3[72] is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 240 PS (176 kW; 236 hp) at 5100 rpm and 330 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2400–5100 rpm.
Model years 1997 and 1998 are equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management, model years 1999 and up are equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management. Also added for the 1999 model year was variable valve timing for the exhaust cam.
For model year 2001 and up power output was increased to 250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) at 5200 rpm with 330 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2400–5200 rpm.

Applications:[99]

B5234T4[edit]

The B5234T4 is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) at 6000 rpm and 350 N⋅m (260 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2400–5000 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management. The 850 R models come with a TD04HL-16T turbo, S70 R and V70 R models come with a TD04HL-18T turbo.

Applications:

B5234T5[edit]

The B5234T5, sometimes also referred to as B5234FT5,[104] is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 225-250 hp. This version of the B5234 features a TD04-15G turbo. It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.3 engine management.

Applications:

B5234T6[edit]

The B5234T6[108] is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 240 PS (177 kW; 237 hp) at 6000 rpm and 310 N⋅m (230 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2700–5400 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management.

Applications:

B5234T7[edit]

The B5234T7 is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 5000 rpm and 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2000–5000 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management.[109]

Applications:

  • 1998–2000 Volvo S70 badged as .
  • 1998–2000 Volvo V70 badged as .
  • 2000–2004 Volvo S80 badged as .
  • 2001–2004 Volvo S60 badged as .

B5234T8[edit]

The B5234T8 is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) at 5700 rpm and 310 N⋅m (230 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2700–5100 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management.

Applications:

B5234T9[edit]

The B5234T9 is a 2.3 L (2,319 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 245 PS (180 kW; 242 hp) at 5400 rpm and 330 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2400–5100 rpm.[111] It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management.

Applications:

  • 2003–2005 Volvo C70 badged as C70 T5 (convertible)

2.4[edit]

B5244S[edit]

The B5244S is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. with a compression ratio of 10.3:1. It is naturally aspirated and was offered in two versions with different power levels:
A detuned version with a power output of 144 PS (106 kW; 142 hp) at 5400 rpm with 152 lb⋅ft (206 N⋅m) of torque at 3600 rpm, and an uprated one with a power output of 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) at 6100 rpm,[100] with 170 lb⋅ft (230 N⋅m) of torque at 4500 rpm. For model year 2000 the engine was equipped with intake cam VVT.

Applications:

B5244S2[edit]

The B5244S2 is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 5700 rpm with 220 N⋅m (160 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3750 rpm. It features intake cam VVT.

Applications:[115]

B5244S4[edit]

The B5244S4 is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.3:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) at 6000 rpm with 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4400 rpm. It features intake cam VVT.

Applications:[117]

B5244S5[edit]

The B5244S5 is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.3:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 5000 rpm with 220 N⋅m (160 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm.

Applications:[119]

B5244S6[edit]

SULEV+ engine variant for California.

B5244S7[edit]

SULEV+ engine variant with PremAir for California.[123]

Applications:

B5244SG[edit]

The B5244SG is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.3:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 4500 rpm with 220 N⋅m (160 lb⋅ft) of torque at 37500 rpm when using petrol; and 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 5800 rpm with 192 N⋅m (142 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm when using natural gas.[125] This particular engine is a Bi-Fuel variant that is optimized for CNG.[87]

Applications:

B5244SG2[edit]

The B5244SG2 is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke 90 mm (3.5 in) is with a compression ratio of 10.3:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 4500 rpm with 220 N⋅m (160 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3750 rpm when using petrol;[127] and 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 5100 rpm with 214 N⋅m (158 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4500 rpm when using LPG.[126] This particular engine is a Bi-Fuel variant that is optimized for LPG.

Applications:

B5244T[edit]

The B5244T[82] is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 9:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 193 PS (142 kW; 190 hp)[100][128] at 5100 rpm[128] with 270 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft)[129] of torque between 1600–5000 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management.

Applications:

B5244T2[edit]

The B5244T2[130] is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 265 PS (195 kW; 261 hp)[131] at 5700 rpm with 350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2400 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management.
It was only available with the 5-speed AW50/51AWD automatic gearbox.[132]

Applications:

B5244T3[edit]

The B5244T3 is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) with 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800 rpm. It features exhaust cam VVT.

Applications:

B5244T4[edit]

The B5244T4 is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 220 PS (162 kW; 217 hp) at 5000 rpm with 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1500 rpm.[133] It features VVT for both intake and exhaust cam.

Applications:

B5244T5[edit]

The B5244T5 is a 2.4 L (2,401 cc) straight-five. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 260 PS (191 kW; 256 hp) at 5500 rpm with 350 N⋅m (260 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2100 rpm. It features VVT for both intake and exhaust cam. It is equipped with a BorgWarner K24 turbocharger.

Applications:[134]

B5244T7[edit]

The B5244T7 2.4 L (2,401 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 5700 rpm[85] with 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) of torque between 1800–5000 rpm. It features VVT for both intake and exhaust cam. It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management.

Applications:

2.5[edit]

B5252S[edit]

The B5252S[72] is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 144 PS (106 kW; 142 hp) at 5400 rpm with 206 N⋅m (152 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3600 rpm. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.2 engine management.

Applications:[138]

B5252FS[edit]

The B5252FS is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is naturally aspirated and it is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.2 engine management.

Applications:

GB5252S[edit]

The GB5252S[108] is a 2.5 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 144 PS (106 kW; 142 hp) at 5400 rpm with 206 N⋅m (152 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3600 rpm when using petrol; and a power output of 122 PS (90 kW; 120 hp) at 5250 rpm with 180 N⋅m (130 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3650 rpm when using natural gas.[140] It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.2 engine management for petrol operation and Necam MEGA for natural gas operation.
This engine was only available with the 4-speed AW50-42LE automatic[141] with three shift modes.[142]

Applications:

GB5252S2[edit]

The GB5252S2[108] is a 2.5 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 144 PS (106 kW; 142 hp) at 5400 rpm with 206 N⋅m (152 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3600 rpm when using petrol; and a power output of 122 PS (90 kW; 120 hp) at 5250 rpm with 180 N⋅m (130 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3650 rpm when using natural gas. It is equipped with Siemens Fenix 5.2 engine management for petrol operation and Necam MEGA for natural gas operation.
This engine was only available with the 4-speed AW50-42LE automatic with adaptive shift logic.

Applications:

B5254S[edit]

The B5254S[103] is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) at 6100 rpm with 220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4700 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch LH-3.2/EZ-129K engine management for model years 1995 and 1996, from model year 1997 on it is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management.

Applications:

B5254F[edit]

The B5254F is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) at 6100 rpm with 220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4700 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch LH-3.2/EZ-129K engine management and features V-VIS.

Applications:

B5254FS[edit]

The B5254FS, sometimes referred to as B5254FS LH 3.2 or B5254FS M4.4, is a 2.4 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) with 220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3300 rpm.[77] It is equipped with Bosch LH-3.2/EZ-129K engine management for model year 1996; and Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management for model years 1997 and 1998.

Applications:

B5254T[edit]

The B5254T is a 2.5 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output 193 PS (142 kW; 190 hp)[153] at 5100 rpm,[110] with 270 N⋅m (200 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–5000 rpm.[110] It is equipped with Bosch Motronic 4.4 engine management for model years 1997 and 1998.[154] It is equipped with Bosch ME7 engine management for model year 1999. Boost pressure is limited to 6 psi (41 kPa).[155]

Applications:

B5254T2[edit]

The B5254T2 is a 2.5 L (2,521 cc) straight-five. Bore is and stroke is with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 210 PS (154 kW; 207 hp) at 5000 rpm with 320 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft)[158] of torque at 1500–4500 rpm.

Applications:[159]

B5254T3[edit]

The B5254T3 is a 2.5 L (2,522 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 220 PS (162 kW; 217 hp) at 5000 rpm with 320 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1500–4800 rpm. On cars with the AW55-51 automatic transmission, torque is limited in first and second gear.[163] It has VVT and is equipped with Bosch ME 9.0[164] engine management system.[165] Unlike previous designs, the turbocharger is integral with the exhaust manifold.

Adaptations of this engine were used by Ford, with power levels ranging from 220 PS (217 bhp)[166] to 350PS (345 bhp).[167] At Ford the engine was called "Duratec-ST",[168] "Duratec ST"[169] or "Duratec RS".[170]

Applications:[171]

  • 2005–2008 Volvo S40 II[123] badged as S40 T5
  • 2005–2008 Volvo V50[123][172] badged as V50 T5
  • 2007 Volvo C30 badged as C30 T5
  • 2006[173]–2007[174] Volvo C70 badged as C70 T5
  • 2005[175]–2011 Ford Focus[164] badged as Focus ST[176]
  • 2009[177]–2010[178] Ford Focus badged as Focus RS[177] The engines as configured for the Ford Focus RS Mk. 2 and RS500 where not used in any Volvo model. They can be described as a RNC version of the S60R/V70R B5254T4 engine. Lower compression (different pistons), stronger connecting rods, same geometry Camshafts as B5254T4 but different (dual) VVT units. These engines use a bigger Borg-Warner K16 turbo instead of the K04, the K16 turbo is an integrated manifold turbocharger, it slightly outperforms the K24 used on the B5254T4 S60R/V70R engine.
  • 2011 Ford Focus badged as Focus RS 500[167]
  • 2008–2012 Ford Kuga badged as Kuga 2.5T[179][180] 2008-2010 Euro 4, 2011-2012 Euro 5.
  • 2007[181]–2010 Ford Mondeo badged as Mondeo 2.5T[166] or Mondeo XR5 Turbo in Australia[182]

B5254T4[edit]

The B5254T4[183] is a 2.5 L (2,522 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled and equipped with dual VVT. It produces 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) at 5500 rpm with 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2000–5250 rpm with the 6-speed manual transmission[nb 11];[137] 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) at 6000 rpm with 350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1850–6000 rpm[184] with the 5-speed automatic transmission[nb 12]. Cars with the 6–speed automatic transmission[nb 13] were not torque limited
It is equipped with a BorgWarner K24 turbocharger.[185]

Applications:[186]

B5254T5[edit]

The B5254T5 is a 2.5 L (2,522 cc) straight-five. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) at 5500 rpm with 360 N⋅m (266 lb⋅ft) of torque between 1800–4020 rpm.

Applications:

B5254T6[edit]

The B5254T6 is a 2.5 L (2,521 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 4800 rpm with 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1500–4500 rpm.

Applications:

B5254T7[edit]

The B5254T7 is 2.5 L (2,521 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 230 PS (169 kW; 227 hp) at 5000 rpm with 320 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1500–5000 rpm. It is equipped with Bosch ME9 engine management. For models with the AW55-51 automatic transmission torque is limited in first and second gear. The turbocharger is still integrated into the exhaust manifold, but is of a different design.

Applications:[192]

B5254T8[edit]

The B5254T8 is a 2.5 L (2,435 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 4800 rpm with 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1500–4500 rpm.[nb 14]

Applications:

  • 2009–2011 Volvo S80 II badged as S80 2.5FT[195]
  • 2009 Volvo V70 III badged as V70 2.5FT'

B5254T10[edit]

The B5254T10 is a 2.5 L (2,521 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 231 PS (170 kW; 228 hp) at 4800 rpm with 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1700–4800 rpm.

Applications:[196]

B5254T11[edit]

The B5254T11 is a 2.5 L (2,521 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 93.2 mm (3.7 in) with a compression ratio of 9.0:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 231 PS (170 kW; 228 hp) at 4800 rpm with 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1700–4800 rpm.

Applications:[198]

B5254T12[edit]

The B5254T12 is a 2.5 L (2,497 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 92.3 mm (3.6 in) with a compression ratio of 9.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 254 PS (187 kW; 251 hp) at 5400 rpm with 360 N⋅m (266 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–4800 rpm.[199] The TF-80SD is the only transmission available with this engine.

Applications:

B5254T14[edit]

The B5254T14 is a 2.5 L (2,497 cc) straight-five. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 92.3 mm (3.6 in) with a compression ratio of 9.5:1. It is turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 249 PS (183 kW; 246 hp) at 5400 rpm with 360 N⋅m (266 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–4200 rpm.

Applications:

B6254FS[edit]

The B6254FS is a 2.5 L (2,473 cc) straight-six. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 80 mm (3.1 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) at 5700 rpm with 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4400 rpm.[207] The 180 hp (130 kW) version of this engine was called B6244FS.

Applications:

B6254G[edit]

Non-catalyst, leaded-fuel compatible version of the B6254S, for regions with limited availability of unleaded fuel.

2.8[edit]

B6284T[edit]

The B6284T is a 2.8 L (2,783 cc)[209] straight-six. Bore is 81 mm (3.2 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is twin-turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 272 PS (200 kW; 268 hp) at 5400 rpm, with 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) of torque at 2000–5000 rpm.[209]

Applications:

2.9[edit]

B6294S[edit]

The B6294S is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.3:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 196 PS (144 kW; 193 hp) at 5200 rpm[87] with 280 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4200 rpm.

Applications:

B6294S2[edit]

The B6294S is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 196 PS (144 kW; 193 hp) at 5200 rpm with 280 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3900 rpm.

Applications:

B6294T[edit]

The B6294T is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 8.5:1. It is twin-turbocharged and intercooled with a power output of 272 PS (200 kW; 268 hp) at 5200 rpm with 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1800–5000 rpm. It features dual VVT.

Applications:[213]

B6304S[edit]

The B6304S is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six.[215] Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.7:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 204 PS (150 kW; 201 hp)[216] at 5200 rpm with 267 N⋅m (197 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4100 rpm.

Fix problem with two different versions having same engine code but different design(s). Pre MY99 is mechanical throttle, MY99 and on is with fly by wire. Different power outputs.

Applications:

B6304S2[edit]

The B6304S2 is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six.

Applications:

  • Volvo 960 later model years / various

B6304S3[edit]

The B6304S3[219] is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six. It has the same bore and stroke (83x90 mm) as the B6294, but the deciliter number was rounded up (i.e. 2,922 cc to 3,000 cc). These engines produced 204 hp (152 kW; 207 PS) at 6000 rpm, and 197 lb⋅ft (267 N⋅m) of torque at 4300 rpm. Engine output was reduced to 180 hp (134 kW; 182 PS) and 199 lb⋅ft (270 N⋅m) by changing the cam profile (back then without variable valve timing) in favour of emissions regulations.

Applications:

B6304G[edit]

The B6304G is a 2.9 L (2,922 cc) straight-six. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in) and stroke is 90 mm (3.5 in) with a compression ratio of 10.7:1. It is naturally aspirated with a power output of 204 PS (150 kW; 201 hp) at 6000 rpm,[220] and 267 N⋅m (197 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4300 rpm.[221] It is adapted to run on leaded gasoline as well as lead free gasoline.

Applications:

  • 1997–1998 Volvo S90 badged as S90 3.0 24_V
  • 1997–1998 Volvo V90 badged as V90 3.0 24_V

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Multi-Point Electronic Gas Injection
  2. ^ Total width including manifolds
  3. ^ First generation Bi-Fuel models with NECAM & Fenix 5.2 engine management
  4. ^ Models with automatic transmission
  5. ^ Models with automatic transmission
  6. ^ Models with manual transmission
  7. ^ Models with manual transmission
  8. ^ Models with manual transmission
  9. ^ Models with automatic transmission
  10. ^ Models with automatic transmission
  11. ^ Volvo M66C AWD transmission
  12. ^ Aisin AW55-51 transmission
  13. ^ Aisin TF 80-SC AWD transmission
  14. ^ Available only on the Thai market

References[edit]

  1. ^ Volvo Cars of North America (25 September 2015). "Volvo MY 2016 VIN decoder - USA/Canada". www.nhtsa.dot.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-06-10. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  2. ^ "LH3.2 ignition system" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-01-12. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  3. ^ "Haynes automotive technical data book - Volvo 960" (PDF). users.net1.cc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-11-30. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  4. ^ "New six-cylinder powers Volvo 960". www.oocities.org. Volvo Cars of North America. 1 October 1991. Archived from the original on 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  5. ^ "Engine & Performance: Bosch ME7 & ME9". www.wothrline.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-23. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  6. ^ a b "Volvo 2000 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. 1999. Archived from the original on 2009-11-06. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  7. ^ "Volvo V70 - 1997 brochure" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car UK Ltd. 1997. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2003-07-26. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  8. ^ "2000 S40 & V40" (PDF). www.matthewsvolvosite.com. 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  9. ^ "Volvo VIN code 2004 Model Year - United States & Canada" (PDF). www.nhtsa.gov. 17 March 2003. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  10. ^ "Volvo 850 Bi-Fuel - sound environmental solution to vehicle exhaust" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. 3 April 1996. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-01-12. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  11. ^ a b Johan Westerberg (June 2000). "Folkhemsherrgård!". egmont-media.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com (in Swedish). Picture by Lennart Pettersson. Auto, Motor & Sport. Archived from the original on 2018-01-08. Retrieved 2018-01-08. 
  12. ^ Sten Jönsson (2002). "GRI-rapport 2002:7 - Projetcs and core values" (PDF). gupea.ub.gu.se. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  13. ^ Greg Kable (13 June 2005). "Volvo's Super 6 - Hot new powerplant for Ford, Jaguar models too". www.autoweek.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-11. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  14. ^ Herb Shuldiner (1 March 2006). "Volvo unveils new inline engine for S80". www.wardsauto.com. Archived from the original on 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  15. ^ Thomas Günnel (13 May 2013). "Volvo startet Produktion eigener VEA-Motoren" [Volvo starts production of own VEA engines]. www.automobil-industrie.vogel.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-01-05. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Technical information - Engine - Volvo 850 GLT" (PDF). www.volvoclub.ru. Volvo Car Corporation. 1991. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  17. ^ "Volvo 480ES - First front wheel drive Volvo turns 25 years". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 20 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  18. ^ "Volvo 850 with four world-firsts turns 20". media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 9 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2017-07-02. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  19. ^ "20 Jahre Volvo 850: Schwere Geburt, später Erfolg, heute gesucht" [20 years of Volvo 850: Difficult start, late success, today wanted]. www.focus.de (in German). 17 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  20. ^ "Volvo 850 Projekt Galaxy "Att sikta mot stjärnorna"" (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-07-11 – via Youtube. 
  21. ^ "Volvo 850 – Siktade mot stjärnorna". www.vibilagare.se (in Swedish). 27 April 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-04-28. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  22. ^ 3348 (6 August 2002). "D5 - Volvo's own diesel engine". autoworld.com.my. Archived from the original on 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2017-07-03. 
  23. ^ Perry Shoar (1 June 2014). "1993 Volvo 850 GLT - Divergent Evolution". www.curbsideclassic.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-17. Retrieved 2017-07-03. 
  24. ^ "2.9L 6Cyl - 1994 Volvo 960" (PDF). caunter.ca. Volvo Cars of North America. 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2005-02-15. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  25. ^ "Prototype engine" (JPG). flickr.com. Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  26. ^ "Press release"Paid subscription required. media.volvocars.com (in German). Volvo Car Corporation. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  27. ^ "Volvo 1993" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 1993. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-01-12. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  28. ^ "Volvo 850 (1991-1996)". media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 27 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  29. ^ "Modified VVIS control" (PDF). www.paerl.it. 11 December 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-11. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  30. ^ "1997 Volvo 850 wiring diagram" (PDF). www.volvowiringdiagrams.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 1996. Retrieved 2017-12-09. 
  31. ^ "Volvo parts catalogue - Volvo 850 European version". weblisher.textalk.se. Volvo Car Corporation. 1996. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  32. ^ "Volvo S40 (1995-2012)". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 27 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  33. ^ "Annual Report 1995, Volvo Cars". www3.volvo.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 1996. Archived from the original (HTM) on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  34. ^ "Volvo 1996" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. October 1995. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-01-12. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  35. ^ "Volvo S80: Volvo's most complete model - even in winter". www.volvogroup.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 25 January 1999. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  36. ^ "Volvo S80 technical presentation" (PDF). www.myvolvolibrary.info. Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. pp. 11–19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2017-12-11. Internal pages 9 to 15 
  37. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (1998). "Volvo S80. Driving Experience". volvoclub.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  38. ^ "S40 Press Release for 2003" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 2003. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  39. ^ a b "The engines in the new Volvo V70 - Economy, Power and Performance". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2000. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  40. ^ "Brief overview of 2001 model changes". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2000. Archived from the original on 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  41. ^ "Volvo S60, Model Year 2009". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2016-05-31. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  42. ^ Vogel (26 April 2004). "Erfolg bei Volvo" [Success at Volvo]. www.automobil-industrie.vogel.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  43. ^ "The all-new Volvo S40: A broad powertrain programme with seven engine options". www.media.volvocars.com (in French). Volvo Car Corporation. 8 September 2003. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  44. ^ Autosieger (13 October 2004). "Variable Ventilsteuerung CVVT von Volvo optimiert" [Variable valve control 'CVVT' optimized by Volvo]. www.autosieger.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  45. ^ "The All New Volvo S80 - Engines". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 28 February 2006. Archived from the original on 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  46. ^ "The new Volvo S80 powered by new six-cylinder in-line engine". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 23 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  47. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Fuel distributor #30677700". www.volvopartswebstore.com (Parts diagram). Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  48. ^ Volvotips (2011). "History 940 & 960". www.volvotips.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  49. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Ignition system 6-Cylinder B6304FS, B6304GS". www.volvopartswebstore.com (Parts diagram). Archived from the original on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  50. ^ a b c "2004 Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 Betriebsanleitung MY04" [2004 Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 owner's manual MY04] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). Volvo Car Corporation. 2003. pp. 147–148. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  51. ^ "2A. Engine -1999" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk (TechDoc). Volvo Car Vorporation. 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  52. ^ "B4164S" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk (TechDoc). Volvo Car Corporation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2005-11-02. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  53. ^ "Volvo S40 and V40 T4 - New addition to the family". www.car.volvo.se. Volvo Car Corporation. 14 August 1997. Archived from the original on 1997-10-17. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  54. ^ a b c "Technische gegevens" [Technical specifications] (Owner's manual) (in Dutch). Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. p. 150. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  55. ^ "Volvo S40 Business prijslijst" (PDF). volvo-tools-prd-media.s3.amazonaws.com (Sales brochure) (in Dutch). 17 August 1999. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2017-12-30. 
  56. ^ "2B. Engine 2000-" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  57. ^ parts number 9157135 or 9157138
  58. ^ "1996 Volvo UK model range" (PDF). www.volvotips.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 15 October 1995. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  59. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (14 August 1997). "Volvo S40 and V40 T4 - Technical specifications". www.car.volvo.se. Archived from the original on 1997-10-17. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  60. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (1998). "Technische gegevens" [Technical specifications] (Owner's manual) (in Dutch). p. 151. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  61. ^ "Cars with the B4204S engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  62. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (15 October 1997). "The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T with ne turbo technology - better, faster, more economical". www.car.volvo.se. Archived from the original on 1997-10-17. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  63. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (1999). "Engine specifications". new.volvocars.com. p. 121. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  64. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2000). "S40/V40 Engine specifications MY01". new.volvocars.com. p. 123. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  65. ^ "Cars with the B4204T3 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  66. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (2003). "S40/V40 Engine specifications MY04". new.volvocars.com. p. 123. Archived from the original on 2017-06-08. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  67. ^ theForgottenone (2 December 2006). "Timing belt cover sticker for B4204T4 engine" (JPG). www.volvospeed.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-22. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  68. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2002). "S40/V40 Engine specifications MY03". new.volvocars.com. p. 123. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  69. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2003). "Engine specifications". new.volvocars.com. p. 123. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  70. ^ Volvo Car UK Ltd. (2003). "Volvo S40 technical specifications (2003)" (PDF). pp. 1–2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-18. 
  71. ^ "Cars with the B4204T5 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i https://www.volvoclub.org.uk/tech/S70Specifications1997.pdf
  73. ^ "Cars with the B5202S engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  74. ^ Volvo TP 0302207
  75. ^ Volvo Cars Germany (1995). "Volvo Preisliste Modelljahr 1996" [Volvo price list model year 1996.] (PDF). www.r-modelle.info (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  76. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Sec. 2 B 5204/5254, B 5252, B 5234 Engines" (PDF) (TechDoc). pp. 1–21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  77. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (1995). "Technische Daten Benzineinspritzsystem LH 3.2" [Technical specifications fuel injection system LH 3.2] (PDF) (TechDoc) (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2017-12-11. 
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Volvo Car Corporation (1998). "Turbocharged engines" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. pp. 1–3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  79. ^ a b Volvo Cars UK (1999). "Volvo Product Training - Volvo C70 Convertible - Features & Benefits" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2003-11-28. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  80. ^ "1998 Volvo S80 T5 technical specifications". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-02. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  81. ^ "Volvo S80 - Versions and Engines by year (1998 to 2006)". www.volvohowto.com. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  82. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (1998). "Betriebsanleitung Volvo C70 1999" [1999 Volvo C70 owner's manual] (PDF). motor-talk.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  83. ^ "Cars with the B5204T4 engine". carfolio.com. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  84. ^ a b c d e f Volvo Car Corporation (August 2002). "Volvo C70" (PDF). volvoclub.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  85. ^ a b Volvo Car UK Ltd. "Volvo C70 pricing MY05" (PDF). p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  86. ^ "Cars with the B5204T5 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h Volvo Car Corporation (2005). "Volvo S80 Betriebsanleitung MY06" [Volvo S80 owner's manual MY06] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). pp. 158–163. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  88. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (August 2002). "Volvo S80" (PDF). pp. 1–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  89. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (2012). "S60 Betriebsanleitung MY13" [S60 owner's manual MY13] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 392. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  90. ^ "Cars with the B5204T8 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  91. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (13 May 2013). "2014 V40 - Technical Data". www.media.volvocars.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  92. ^ a b c d Volvo Car Corporation (2012). "Volvo V60 Betriebsanleitung MY13" [Volvo V60 owner's manual MY13] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 402. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  93. ^ "Cars with the B5204T9 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  94. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2014). "S80L owners manual MY15" (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in Chinese). pp. 322–329. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  95. ^ a b c https://www.volvoclub.org.uk/press/pdf/850T5PressRelease1993.pdf
  96. ^ "Road Test: Volvo 850 T-5 Sportswagon" (JPG). s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com. CAR magazine. January 1996. Archived from the original on 2016-10-19. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  97. ^ "From the Archives: Volvo 850 T-5 Sportswagon". www.carmag.co.za. CAR magazine. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2017-05-17. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  98. ^ a b c "Volvo 850" (PDF). www.volvotips.com (in Dutch). pp. 42–43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  99. ^ "Cars with the B5234T3 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Volvo Car Corporation (1999). "2000 S & V70". new.volvocars.com. p. 135. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  101. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Volvo C70 technical specifications" (PDF). p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-04-21. 
  102. ^ "850 R". www.r-modelle.info (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-11-05. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  103. ^ a b c Volvo Cars of North America (1996). "Volvo 1997 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 2014-05-01. Retrieved 2017-07-27. 
  104. ^ "Technische gegevens 850 T-5R sedan" [Technical specifications 850 T-5R sedan] (JPG) (in Dutch). July 1994. Retrieved 2018-02-21. 
  105. ^ a b Volvo Cars of North America (1994). "Volvo 1995 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. Archived from the original on 2017-03-05. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  106. ^ "Volvo 1996 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". Volvo Cars of North America. 1995. Retrieved 2018-04-21. 
  107. ^ Volvo Cars of North America (1996). "Volvo 1997 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  108. ^ a b c Volvo Cars of North America (1998). "Volvo 1999 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. Archived from the original on 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  109. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2003). "2004 Volvo S80 Betriebsanleitung" [2004 Volvo S80 owner's manual] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  110. ^ a b c d e Volvo Cars of North America (1998). "pg. 135 Engine". new.volvocars.com. p. 135. Retrieved 2017-07-27. 
  111. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2003). "2004 Volvo C70 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 127. Archived from the original on 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  112. ^ a b c d Volvo Car Corporation (January 2003). "Volvo S80 engine specifications" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. pp. 1–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  113. ^ "Renault Safrane (1996-2000)". www.autoevolution.com. Archived from the original on 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  114. ^ Wheels & Chrome (22 May 2008). "Autoreview: Renault Safrane RXE 2.5 (1998)" [Car review: Renault Safrane RXE 2.5 (1998)]. www.autoweek.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2013-08-04. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  115. ^ "Cars with the B5244S2 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  116. ^ Volvo Car BV Netherlands (1 December 1999). "Specificaties Volvo S80 Limited Edition" [Specifications Volvo S80 Limited Edition] (PDF) (in Dutch). p. 2. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  117. ^ "Cars with the B5244S4 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  118. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "Volvo C30 Betriebsanleitung MY07" [Volvo C30 owner's manual MY07] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 255. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-18. 
  119. ^ "Cars with the B5244S5 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  120. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2005). "Volvo C30 Betriebsanleitung MY06" [Volvo C30 owner's manual MY06] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 211. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  121. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2009). "Volvo C70 Betriebsanleitung MY10" [Volvo C70 owner's manual MY10] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 281. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  122. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Volvo C70 Betriebsanleitung MY07" [Volvo C70 owner's manual MY07] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-01. 
  123. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (March 2005). "New Car Features 0520" (PDF) (Technical presentation). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-01. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  124. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2008). "Volvo S40 owner's manual MY09" (PDF). p. 270. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-31. 
  125. ^ a b Volvo Car Germany Gmbh (8 July 2002). "Volvo V70 Einzelpreisliste" [Volvo V70 price liste] (PDF). www.motor-talk.de (in German). pp. 2, 12–13. Archived from the original on 2017-08-06. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  126. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "Volvo S60 & S60 R Betriebsanleitung MY05" [Volvo S60 & S60 R owner's manual MY05] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 219. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-29. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  127. ^ a b Volvo Cars Ltd. (May 2003). "Volvo Bi-Fuel" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. pp. 9–11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-29. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  128. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (1999). "2000 Volvo C70 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 123. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  129. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2001). "2002 Volvo C70 Coupe & Convertible owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 131. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  130. ^ Fmfosnacht (1 June 2017). "VIDA printout for MY2000 V70 R AWD". forums.swedespeed.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2017-07-03. 
  131. ^ Bente Bjørnsen (29 May 1999). "Fornyet Volvo V70 R AWD: Stor, sterk og sporty" [Renewed Volvo V70 R AWD: Big, strong and sporty]. www.dinside.no (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2017-07-12. 
  132. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (August 1999). "The V70 revolution continues". new.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2017-07-12. 
  133. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "Betriebsanleitung Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 MY05" [Owner's manual Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70] (PDF) (in German). pp. 168–169. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2018-04-21. 
  134. ^ "Cars with the B5244T5 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  135. ^ Volvo Car UK Ltd. (May 2004). "Volvo S60 Press Information" (PDF) (Press brochure). pp. 37–39. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-02-02. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  136. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "2005 Volvo V70 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 163. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  137. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 Betriebsanleitung MY06" [Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 owner's manual MY06] (PDF). esd.volvocars.com (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-03-19. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  138. ^ "Cars with the B5252 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  139. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (1995). "1996 Volvo 850 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  140. ^ a b "新車試乗記 ボルボ V70 バイフューエルを試乗レポート!" [Test drive report of the new V70 Bi-Fuel test car!]. www.motordays.com (in Japanese). 19 March 1999. Archived from the original on 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  141. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (1996). "Volvo 850 Bi-Fuel - technical specifications" (JPEG). www.motor-talk.de. Archived from the original on 2017-03-05. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  142. ^ a b "Car Test:Volvo V70 Bi-Fuel" (PDF). www.theaa.com. The Automobile Association. February 1998. pp. 1–3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2017-12-20. R98811A 
  143. ^ a b "C912-09AUG96-RPT" (PDF). California Air Ressource Board. August 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-02-11. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  144. ^ Donna J. Wood; Jeanne M. Logsdon; Patsy G. Lewellyn; Kim Davenport (17 March 2006). "Global Business Citizenship: A Transformative Framework for Ethics and Sustainable Capitalism". M.E. Sharpe. Retrieved 2018-01-03 – via Google Books. 
  145. ^ MartinG. "Volvo 850 Bi-fuel". www.garaget.org (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2017-03-05. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  146. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Volvo 850 BI-FUEL" (JPG). www.garaget.org (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  147. ^ "BI-FUEL" (JPG). www.coloribus.com. Forsman & Bodenfors. November 1998. Archived from the original on 2017-03-05. Retrieved 2017-12-20. 
  148. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (1996). "1997 Volvo 850 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-22. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  149. ^ part number 9133198
  150. ^ AutoWeek (29 March 2015). "Barrelbrigade op de rollenbank - Volvo 850 GLT" [Barrelbrigade on the dyno]. www.youtube.com (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-10-07 – via Youtube. 
  151. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Volvo 1993 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. Retrieved 2017-12-11. 
  152. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "Volvo 1994 Version Identification Number (VIN) Decoding". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Cars of North America. Retrieved 2017-12-11. 
  153. ^ a b Volvo Cars of North America (1997). "pg. 135 Engine". new.volvocars.com. p. 135. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  154. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (1997). "Engine management system Motronic 4.4 for the B5254T engine" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  155. ^ Volvo Car Corporation. "B5254T, 850" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  156. ^ "Op de rollenbank: Volvo V70 2.5T" [On the dyno: Volvo V70 2.5T]. www.youtube.com (in Dutch). AutoWeek. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 2017-07-27 – via Youtube. 
  157. ^ Volvo Cars of North America (1997). "1998 Volvo C70: pg. 125 Engine". new.volvocars.com. p. 125. Archived from the original on 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2017-07-27. 
  158. ^ Volvo Car UK Ltd (July 2003). "Volvo V70 pricing" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. pp. 8–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-12-17. 
  159. ^ "Cars with the B5254T2 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  160. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2003). "2004 Volvo S60 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 155. Archived from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  161. ^ a b Volvo Cars of North America (2003). "2004 Volvo V70 brochure" (PDF). p. 39. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  162. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "2005 Volvo XC90 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 172. Archived from the original on 2017-02-26. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  163. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "Engines B5244S4 and B5254T3" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  164. ^ a b "Ford Focus ST 2.5T" (PDF). www-celtictuning.co.uk. Celtic Tuning Ltd. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  165. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "Engines: B5244S4 and B5254T3" (PDF). theeshadow.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  166. ^ a b "Ford Mondeo 2.5T". www.autocar.co.uk. AutoCar. 27 April 2007. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  167. ^ a b Jack Rix (15 May 2010). "Ford Focus RS500". www.autoexpress.co.uk. Dennis Publishing Ltd. Archived from the original on 2017-03-14. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  168. ^ Ford Motor Company (2004). "Ford Workshop Manuals > Focus 2004.75 (07.2004-) > Mechanical Repairs > 3 Powertrain > 303 Engine > 303-01D Engine - 2.5L Duratec-ST (VI5) > Specifications". workshop-manuals.com (Workshop manual). Archived from the original on 2017-10-05. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  169. ^ Ford-Werke Gmbh (March 2008). "2008 Ford Focus Broschüre" [2008 Ford Focus brochure] (PDF) (in German). Köln, Deutschland [Cologne, Germany]. pp. 26–28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04. MY2008.25 
  170. ^ "2.5L Duratec-RS VI5 Motor" [2.5L Duratec-RS VI5 engine] (PDF) (Table of contents) (in German). Tec-Verlag. pp. 3–6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-05. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  171. ^ "Cars with the B5254T3 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  172. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2004). "2005 Volvo V50 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 190. Archived from the original on 2017-07-02. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  173. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "2006 Volvo C70 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 192. Archived from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  174. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "2007 Volvo C70 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 241. Archived from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  175. ^ Jörg Maltzan (15 November 2005). "Im Focus: 225 PS!" [Focus with 225PS!]. www.autobild.de (in German). AutoBild. Archived from the original on 2017-03-18. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  176. ^ Martin Vogt (31 October 2005). "Fahrbericht Ford Focus ST - Datenblatt" [Drive Review Ford Focus ST - datasheet]. www.focus.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  177. ^ a b Ford-Werke Gmbh (18 December 2008). "Preisliste Focus RS" [price list Focus RS] (PDF) (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  178. ^ "Ford Focus RS MK 2". www.autobild.de (in German). AutoBild. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  179. ^ Susan Rocchetti. "Ford Kuga 2.5T Individual - Fahrspaß auf allen Vieren" [Ford Kuga 2.5T Individual - Driving pleasure on all fours]. www.blick.ch (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  180. ^ "Test Ford Kuga 2.5T - Für den Genießer" [Review Ford Kuga 2.5T - for the connoisseur]. www.autobild.de (in German). AutoBild. 21 April 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-12-25. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  181. ^ Jochen Koblach (21 July 2007). "Ford Mondeo Turnier 2.5 T "Titanium" im Test - Ausnahmsweise" [Ford Mondeo Turnier 2.5 T "Titanium" review - for once]. www.berliner.zeitung.de (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-03-13. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  182. ^ Tim O'Brien (27 August 2008). "2008 Ford Mondeo XR5 Turbo Road Test Review". www.themotorreport.com.au. The Motor Report. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-18. 
  183. ^ Volvo Cars of North America (29 May 2003). "Technical update 1" (PDF) (Training material). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2004-07-25. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  184. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "2007 Volvo V70 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 223. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  185. ^ "TurboNews 237 01/04" (PDF). www.turbos.borgwarner.com (in German). BorgWarner Turbo Systems. January 2004. pp. 10–11. Archived from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  186. ^ "Cars with the B5254T4 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  187. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 Betriebsanleitung MY07" [Volvo V70, V70 R & XC70 owner's manual MY07] (PDF) (in German). pp. 236–237. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  188. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2011). "Volvo S60 owner's manual MY12" (PDF). esd.volvocars.com. pp. 238–239. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-31. 
  189. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2006). "Volvo S80 Betriebsanleitung MY07" [Volvo S80 owner's manual MY07] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 217. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  190. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2008). "Volvo V70 & XC70 owner's manual MY09" (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net. p. 280. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2017-09-29. 
  191. ^ Richard Porter; Tom Willcocks (8 May 2006). "Ford S-Max 2.5T". www.evo.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2016-11-10. Retrieved 2017-07-21. 
  192. ^ "Cars with the B5254T7 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  193. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2008). "Volvo C30 owner's manual MY09"Paid subscription required (PDF). Retrieved 2018-01-31. 
  194. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2011). "Volvo C70 Betriebsanleitung MY12" [Volvo C70 owner's manual MY12] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 293. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  195. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2009). "Volvo S80 Betriebsanleitung MY10" [Volvo S80 owner's manual MY10] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 294. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  196. ^ "Cars with the B5254T10 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  197. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2011). "Volvo V70 / XC70 Betriebsanleitung MY12" [Volvo V70 / XC70 owner's manual MY12] (PDF). esd.volvocars.com (in German). p. 396. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-11-06. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  198. ^ "Cars with the B5254T11 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  199. ^ a b Volvo Car Austria Gmbh (1 May 2014). "Volvo XC60 Preisliste MY15" [Volvo XC60 price list MY15] (PDF) (Price list) (in German). pp. 4, 26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-10. 
  200. ^ "Cars with the B5254T12 engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  201. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2012). "2013 S60 owner's manual" (PDF). esd.volvocars.com. p. 235. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  202. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2015). "2016 Volvo XC70 - specifications". www.media.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 2016-08-22. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  203. ^ a b Volvo Car Corporation (2015). "Technische Daten Motor" [Technical specifications engine]. support.volvocars.com/de (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-12-10. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  204. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (5 April 2016). "Motorvorwärmer, elektrisch" [Engine preheater, electric]. accessories.volvocars.com (Installation instructions) (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  205. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2013). "Volvo V40 Betriebsanleitung MY14" [Volvo V40 owner's manual MY14] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-05. Retrieved 2018-01-04. 
  206. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2013). "Volvo S60 Betriebsanleitung MY14" [Volvo S60 owner's manual MY14] (PDF). az685612.vo.msecnd.net (in German). p. 412. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  207. ^ "Press launch information pack - Volvo 960 1995" (PDF). Volvo Car UK Limited. June 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  208. ^ "X90 accessories catalogue FR/GB/NL/DE" (PDF). accessories.volvocars.com (Accessories brochure) (in French, English, Dutch, and German). Volvo Car Corporation. 1999. pp. 4–8, 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  209. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (1999). "S80 Brochure 1999" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-06. 
  210. ^ a b c Volvo Car Corporation (1998). "1999 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 120. Archived from the original on 2017-10-05. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  211. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2001). "2002 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 126. Archived from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2018-01-03. 
  212. ^ "2003 Volvo S80 brochure (UK)" (PDF). volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. April 2003. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-04-04. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  213. ^ "Cars with the B6294T engine". www.carfolio.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  214. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (2002). "2003 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. p. 130. Archived from the original on 2017-04-19. Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  215. ^ a b "Es war einmal in Arvika" [Once upon a time in Arvika]. www.autobild.de (in German). AutoBild. 18 August 2003. Archived from the original on 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  216. ^ a b Pieter Schoonderbeek (7 November 2012). "Rij-impressie: Jösse Car Indigo 3000" [Driving impressions: Jösse Car Indigo 3000]. www.hartvoorautos.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  217. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (1995). "1996 Volvo 960: pg. 9:3 Specifications". new.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  218. ^ Mattias Rabe (19 December 2014). "Svenska sportbilen JC Indigo 3000 återuppstår!" [The swedish sport car JC Indigo 3000 returns!]. teknikensvarld.se (in Swedish). Teknikens Värld. Archived from the original on 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2017-07-08. 
  219. ^ "Volvo S80 VIN plates". www.volvoclub.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  220. ^ Volvo Car Corporation (1996). "Section 2 B6304 Engine" (PDF) (Workshop manual). p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2017-12-16. 
  221. ^ "Motor B6304G" (in cz). Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2017-12-16.