Volvo S80

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Volvo S80
Volvo S80 D5 Momentum (II, Facelift) – Frontansicht, 26. Oktober 2012, Düsseldorf.jpg
2012 Volvo S80 (DE)
Overview
ManufacturerVolvo Cars
Production
  • 1998–2016
  • P2: 1998–2006 (1st generation)
  • P3: 2006–2016 (2nd generation)
Body and chassis
Class
Body style4-door saloon
Layout
Chronology
PredecessorVolvo 960 / Volvo 940 / Volvo S90
SuccessorVolvo S90 II[1]

The Volvo S80 is an executive car produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo Cars from 1998 to 2016 across two generations. It took the place of the rear-wheel-drive S90 as Volvo's flagship sedan.

The first generation (1998–2006) was made available for the 1999 model year. It has since been built at the Torslanda Works in Gothenburg, Sweden, with a few 1999 model year cars for the North American market built at Volvo's Halifax Assembly plant. Unlike most Volvo models, it did not have a station wagon version for its first generation.

The second generation (2006–2016) was released in 2006 as a model year 2007 car. It has an estate version, the third generation of the Volvo V70. In June 2007, the S80 scored the highest "good" rating in the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) crash test performance for frontal, side, and rear impacts,[2] earning it the IIHS Top Safety Pick.

The model was replaced by the second generation S90 in the later half of 2016.

First generation (1998–2006)[edit]

First generation
Volvo S80 2.4T 2002 Blue, front.jpg
2002 Volvo S80 (UK)
Overview
Production1998–2006
Model years1999–2006[3]
Assembly
Designer
Body and chassis
PlatformVolvo P2 platform[5]
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,791 mm (109.9 in)
Length
  • 1998-2004: 4,822 mm (189.8 in)
  • 2004-2006: 4,849 mm (190.9 in)
Width1,831 mm (72.1 in)
Height1,435 mm (56.5 in)
Kerb weight1,605–1,712 kg (3,538–3,774 lb)[7][8][9][10]

The design takes styling cues from the Volvo ECC concept. The first-generation S80 is based on the Volvo P2 platform. Over 368,000 first-generation S80s were built.[11] This S80 was equipped with numerous safety systems, including Side Impact Protection System (SIPS) and Whiplash Protection System WHIPS.[12] The S80 featured a straight-six engine in a transverse engine mounting. No existing manual gearbox would fit in the engine bay with the six-cylinder engine, so Volvo had to develop their own, the M65. It featured also an environmental specification, covering aspects such as allergens from textiles, fuel economy and the life cycle of the car from production to dismantling.[13]

The S80 used CAN bus multiplexing wiring.[14]

The S80 was initially available with four different engines. Starting the range was a detuned 2.4-litre 104 kilowatts (141 PS; 139 bhp) five-cylinder. This was also available as a compressed natural gas (CNG) and as an liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) version. The fully tuned version produced 125 kilowatts (170 PS; 168 bhp). Next up was a 2.9-litre 144 kilowatts (196 PS; 193 bhp) six-cylinder, then 200 kilowatts (272 PS; 268 bhp) T6, and finally, the 103 kilowatts (140 PS; 138 bhp) 2.5-litre Volkswagen-sourced Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine. The 2.9 has a straight-six engine, while the T6 was powered by a destroked twin-turbocharged version.[12]

In 2000, there was the addition of the 149 kilowatts (203 PS; 200 bhp) 2.5T, available with standard all-wheel drive. The 2.5T model featured a light-pressure turbocharger.

Late 2001 introduced the 120 kilowatts (163 PS; 161 bhp) five-cylinder common rail diesel D5, detuned to 96 kilowatts (131 PS; 129 bhp) and sold as 2.4D in some markets.[6][15]

In some European countries, the entry level S80 came with a 2.0-litre five-cylinder turbocharged engine producing 182 metric horsepower (134 kW; 180 bhp) and a T5 badged S80 with the same engine but tuned to 226ps or 166kw with the help of the mitsubishi td04-16t high pressure turbo also found in the early S60 T5s. These were sold in countries such as Portugal where larger capacity engines were penalized by heavy taxes.

Minor exterior design changes occurred between 2003 and 2004 versions, notably front grille styling.

Engines[edit]

Petrol engines
Model Engine code Year(s) Power Torque @rpm Displacement Engine configuration Fuel
2.4 B5244S[16] 1998–2006 103 kW (140 PS; 138 bhp) 220 N⋅m (162 lb⋅ft) @3300 2,435 cc (148.6 in3) Straight five Petrol engine
2.4i B5244S 1998–2006 125 kW (170 PS; 168 bhp) 225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft) @4500 2,435 cc (148.6 in3) Straight five Petrol engine
2.0T B5204T 2000–2006 132 kW (179 PS; 177 bhp) 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) @2200–4800 1,984 cc (121.1 in3) Straight five LPT Petrol engine
2.4T B5244T3 2001–2003 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) 285 N⋅m (210 lb⋅ft) @1800–5000 2,435 cc (148.6 in3) Straight five LPT Petrol engine
2.5T B5254T2 2003–2006 155 kW (211 PS; 208 bhp) 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) @1500–4500 2,521 cc (153.8 in3) Straight five LPT Petrol engine
2.9 B6294S 1998–2001 150 kW (204 PS; 201 bhp) 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) @ 2,922 cc (178.3 in3) Straight six Petrol engine
2.9 B6294S2 2001–2004 144 kW (196 PS; 193 bhp) 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) @ 2,922 cc (178.3 in3) Straight six Petrol engine
T6 B6284T 1998–2001 200 kW (272 PS; 268 bhp) 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) @ 2000–5400 2,783 cc (169.8 in3) Straight six twin-turbo Petrol engine
T6 B6294T 2002–2006 203 kW (276 PS; 272 bhp) 380 N⋅m (280 lb⋅ft) @ 1800–5200 2,922 cc (178.3 in3) Straight six twin-turbo Petrol engine
Diesel engines
Model Engine code Year(s) Power Torque @rpm Displacement Engine configuration Fuel
2.5 TDI* D5252T (MSA 15.8) 1998–2001 140 PS (103 kW; 138 bhp) 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) @ 2,461 cc (150.2 in3) Straight five turbocharged Diesel engine
2.4D D5244T2 2001–2006 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) @1750–3000 2,401 cc (146.5 in3) Straight five turbocharged common rail Diesel engine
D5 D5244T 2001–2006 163 PS (120 kW; 161 hp) 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @1750–3000 2,401 cc (146.5 in3) Straight five turbocharged common rail Diesel engine

Safety[edit]

EuroNCAP tested the first generation Volvo S80, running from 1998 to 2003. They tested a left-hand drive, 4-door saloon, registered in 2000, with front seatbelt pretensioners, seatbelt load limiters, as well as front, side, body, and head airbags:

Test Score Points
Overall: N/A N/A
Adult occupant: 4/5 stars 29
Pedestrian: 2/4 stars 14

Scores given for the car showed pedestrians' legs facing a very aggressive front end, resulting in only 2 stars of 4 for pedestrian safety. Despite this EuroNCAP did state "This large Volvo is very safe and gave a good all round performance" due to the good adult protection inside the car in the event of a collision.[17]

Second generation (2006–2016)[edit]

Second generation
07-Volvo-S80-3.2.jpg
Volvo S80 3.2 pre-facelift (US)
Overview
Production2006–2016
Model years2007–2016
Assembly
DesignerTodd Levy (2004)[19][20]
Body and chassis
PlatformVolvo P3 platform[21][22]
Related
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.6 L I4 turbo (petrol)
  • 2.0 L I4 (petrol)
  • 2.0 L I4 (flexifuel)
  • 2.0 L I4 turbo (petrol)
  • 2.5 L I5 turbo (petrol)
  • 3.0 L I6 turbo (petrol)
  • 3.2 L I6 (petrol)
  • 4.4 L V8 (petrol)
  • 1.6 L I4 (turbodiesel)
  • 2.0 L I4 (turbodiesel)
  • 2.0 L I5 (turbodiesel)
  • 2.4 L I5 (turbodiesel)
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 2,835 mm (111.6 in)
  • 2,975 mm (117.1 in)[24] (S80L)
Length
  • 4,854 mm (191.1 in)
  • 4,991 mm (196.5 in) (S80L)
Width1,861 mm (73.3 in)
Height1,490 mm (58.7 in)
Kerb weight1,565–1,860 kg (3,450–4,101 lb)[25][26][27]

The second generation S80 was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show on 28 February, with sales beginning in June 2006. The new S80 features a new 3.2-litre straight-six engine or 4.4-litre V8 engine, in combination with available four-wheel drive. The second-generation S80 is the first Volvo saloon model to become available with Volvo's compact, transversely fitted B8444S V8 with a power output of 315 PS (232 kW; 311 hp) and 440 newton metres (325 lbf⋅ft) of torque developed jointly by Volvo Cars engine unit Skövde and Yamaha, but built by Yamaha of Japan. The engine features four catalytic converters and advanced electronics. The structure featured high strength boron steel for safety.

The second generation S80 received the IIHS 2007 Top Safety Pick Award in overall safety protection. Also again in November the IIHS awarded the 2008 Volvo S80 with Top Safety Award.

The new S80 is based on the Ford EUCD platform, also used for vehicles including the Ford S-Max, Ford Mondeo (third generation), and Ford Galaxy large MPVs.[28] Volvo's Personal Car Communicator (PCC) remote control will also be an optional feature with the new S80.

The S80 is available with optional Adaptive cruise control (ACC) with Collision Warning with Auto Brake (CWAB). Brake Support offers additional assistance by preparing the braking system so that the car can begin stopping faster and preparing for panic brake application. S80 is also equipped with an adaptive brake light as standard which is active at speeds above 30 mph (48 km/h), and can sense the difference between normal and panic braking. Ready Alert Brakes (RAB) are also available to anticipate severe braking. It prepares for this by moving the brake pads closer to the discs.

The S80 is available with a Blind Spot Information System as well as Lane Departure Warning, it can be turned on from 40 mph (64 km/h).

The T4 variant features the 1.6L turbocharged EcoBoost engine and is exclusively available in Asia and parts of Europe.

Second generation models[edit]

S80[edit]

S80L[edit]

The S80L is a long-wheelbase variant designed and sold only in China. Wheelbase and overall length have been increased by 14 cm.[29] The 2011 version has a wheelbase of 2976 mm and is powered by a turbo 2.0 or 3.0 engine.[30] The S80L is one of two Volvo models produced under a joint-venture with Changan Ford Mazda Automobile (CFMA).[31][18] CFMA production of the S80L commenced in 2009 and ceased in late 2015 when the joint-venture ended.[18] The S80L has since been succeeded by the S90L.

2010 update[edit]

New features include a choice of five-cylinder 2.4-litre D5 twin-turbo diesel, 2.4-litre diesel, or 1.6-litre diesel engine. Also the 2.5T and 2.5FT were modified to produce more power and have a lower fuel consumption. The update also came with the discontinuation of the Yamaha-based V8 engine. An option was added for California on the 3.2L Inline-6 to meet PZEV emissions standards. It had 225bhp, 10 less than the non-PZEV engine.[32] The car's exterior was modified to give the S80 a lower, longer and wider stance. More chrome trim was added to the front, the rear end, and the doors to look like the S80 Executive. The 2010 Volvo S80 facelift also comes with a choice between a comfort-enhancing standard chassis, or a sport one that offers better handling dynamics. The 2010 S80 will be available with a S80 R-design interior package to give the inside a sportier look. The interior package contains a new sports steering wheel, sports pedals, Dynamic leather seats, sports gearshift knob, and a new instrument with blue background. With the rest of the Volvo range, a factory stereo option, Dynaudio Premium Sound was downgraded to 'Premium Sound'.[33]

The car was unveiled in 2009 at the Geneva Motor Show.[34]

2011[edit]

The 2011 Volvo S80 lineup now includes the Inscription Package. Features Include: Sovereign Hide leather seats, high gloss walnut wood inlays, and special trim. The 3.2L was re-tuned, power and engine speed differ.

2012[edit]

The 2012 Volvo S80 now features turn signals on the outside mirrors, a new 7-inch Sensus infotainment system in the center of the dash, genuine wood interior trim and Bluetooth audio streaming. Volvo's City Safety technology is also now standard. Premier Plus and Platinum trims are added for the 2012 model year.[35]

2013 update[edit]

The 2013 Volvo S80 now features standard headlight washers, rain sensing wipers, and push button start ignition. The Premium Plus edition adds xenon headlamps.

2014 update[edit]

The 2nd half of year 2014 introduced a new facelift with new front and rear bumpers, new lower front fascia, new grille style, the 7 inch infotainment system becomes standard, City Safety becomes standard, new optional digital gauge cluster, and additional interior ambient lighting.

2015[edit]

The base 2015 Volvo S80 is powered by a new turbocharged 2.0-liter four-cylinder engine with 240 horsepower, which is the same output as the 3.2-liter six-cylinder in the 2014 model. A new eight-speed automatic transmission comes standard, and the base S80 also gets a new auto start/stop feature, which turns the engine off when the car is stopped to conserve fuel. The 2015 S80 achieves an EPA-estimated 25/37 mpg city/highway, which is a notable improvement over the 2014 model’s 20/29 mpg rating. T6 AWD models come with a turbocharged 3.0-liter six-cylinder engine that produces 300 horsepower. A six-speed automatic transmission and all-wheel drive are also standard on T6 models. The T6 gets slightly better fuel economy than the 2014 model T6.

An optional climate package includes heated front and rear seats, a heated windshield and a heated steering wheel. The 2015 Volvo S80 went on sale in early 2014 and starts at $40,500 in the US.

2015.5[edit]

Introduced in late 2014, midyear changes introduced for the 2015.5 model include new standard Sensus Connect and Volvo On-Call with 6-month complimentary subscriptions, new Sensus Navigation with Map Care, and a new optional Harman/Kardon Premium Sound System. Most notably, the new 2015.5 model has significantly better fuel economy due to the more efficient "Drive-E" engine, new 8-speed “Geartronic” automatic transmission, and new ECO+ functionality with modified Start/Stop technology, ECO-coast and ECO-climate. The 2015.5 Volvo S80 starts at $41,450 in the US.

2016[edit]

The Volvo S80 offered an expanded array of standard features for 2016 which includes heated front seats, Interior Air Quality System (IAQS), power glass sunroof, and 18-inch “Magni” alloy wheels. The S80 T5 Drive-E Platinum trim gains Volvo’s Blind Spot Information System (BLIS) as standard. New S80 options include a wood steering wheel and 19-inch “Bor” alloy wheels with a lowered Sport Chassis. The T6 six-cylinder engine and all-wheel-drive model have been discontinued for the 2016 model year. The 2016 Volvo S80 T5 FWD Drive-E started at $43,450 in the US. 2016 was the last model year for the S80. The S80's successor, the S90, was unveiled at the Detroit Auto Show in January 2016.[36]

Engines[edit]

Petrol engines
Model Engine code Year(s) Power Torque @rpm Displacement Engine configuration Fuel
2.0 X 2008–2009 107 kW (145 PS; 143 bhp) 185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) @ 1,999 cc (122.0 in3) Inline-four Petrol
2.0F X 2008–2009 107 kW (145 PS; 143 bhp) 185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) @ 1,999 cc (122.0 in3) Inline-four E85/petrol FlexiFuel
2.0 B4204S3 2009– 107 kW (145 PS; 143 bhp) 190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft) @ 1,999 cc (122.0 in3) Inline-four Petrol
2.0F B4204S4 2009– 107 kW (145 PS; 143 bhp) 190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft) @ 1,999 cc (122.0 in3) Inline-four E85/petrol FlexiFuel
2.5T B5254T6 2006–2009 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) @4800 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) @1500–4500 2,521 cc (153.8 in3) Inline-five LPT Petrol
2.5FT B5254T11 2008–2009 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) @ 2,521 cc (153.8 in3) Inline-five LPT E85/petrol FlexiFuel
2.5T B5254T10 2009–2011 170 kW (231 PS; 228 bhp) @4800 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @1700–4800 2,521 cc (153.8 in3) Inline-five LPT Petrol
2.5FT B5254T11 2009–2010 170 kW (231 PS; 228 bhp) 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @ 2,521 cc (153.8 in3) Inline-five LPT E85/petrol FlexiFuel
  • 3.2
  • 3.2 AWD
B6324S[37] 2006–2010 175 kW (238 PS; 235 bhp) @6200 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) @3200 3,192 cc (194.8 in3) Inline-six Petrol
3.2 B6324S5 2011 179 kW (243PS; 240 bhp) @6400 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) @3200 3,192 cc (194.8 in3) Inline-six Petrol
3.2 PZEV B6324S2 2010 168 kW (228PS; 225 bhp) @6200 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) @3400 3,192 cc (194.8 in3) Inline-six Petrol
3.2 PZEV B6324S4 2011 171 kW (233PS; 230 bhp) @6500 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) @3300 3,192 cc (194.8 in3) Inline-six Petrol
T4 B4164T 2011–2016 134 kW (182 PS; 180 bhp) 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) @ 1,596 cc (97.4 in3) Inline-four turbocharged Petrol
T5 B4204T7 2013–2016 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) 350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1,969 cc (120.2 in3) Inline-four turbocharged Petrol
T5 B4204T11 2014–2016 180 kW (245 PS; 241 bhp) |1,969 cc (120.2 in3) Inline-four turbocharged Petrol
T6 AWD B6304T2 2008–2010 209.5 kW (285 PS; 281 bhp) 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @1500–4800 2,953 cc (180.2 in3) Inline-six turbocharged Petrol
T6 AWD B6304T4 2010–2013 224 kW (305 PS; 300 bhp) 440 N⋅m (325 lb⋅ft) @ 2,953 cc (180.2 in3) Inline-six turbocharged Petrol
V8 AWD[38] B8444S 2006–2010 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) 440 N⋅m (325 lb⋅ft) @3950 4,414 cc (269.4 in3) V8 Petrol
Diesel engines
Model Engine Code Year(s) Power Torque @rpm Displacement Engine configuration Fuel
1.6D DRIVe D4164T 2009– 80 kW (109 PS; 107 bhp) 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) @1750[39] 1,560 cc (95.2 in3) Inline-four turbocharged common rail Diesel
2.0D D4204T 2008– 100 kW (136 PS; 134 bhp) 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) @2000[39] 1,997 cc (121.9 in3) Inline-four turbocharged common rail Diesel
2.4D D5244T5 2006–2009 120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp) 340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) @ 2,400 cc (146.5 in3) Inline-five turbocharged common rail Diesel
2.4D D5244T14 2009– 129 kW (175 PS; 173 bhp) 420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) @1500–2750[39] 2,400 cc (146.5 in3) Inline-five turbocharged common rail Diesel
D4 D5204T3[40] −2014 120 kW (163 PS; 161 bhp) 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 1,984 cc (121.1 in3) Inline-five turbocharged common rail Diesel
D4 D4204T5[40] 2014–2016 133 kW (181 PS; 178 bhp) 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 1,969 cc (120.2 in3) Inline-four turbocharged common rail Diesel
  • D5
  • D5 AWD
D5244T4 2006–2009 136 kW (185 PS; 182 bhp) 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 2,400 cc (146.5 in3) Inline-five turbocharged common rail Diesel
  • D5
  • D5 AWD
D5244T10 2009–2010 151 kW (205 PS; 202 bhp) 420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) @1500–3250 2,400 cc (146.5 in3) Inline-five twin-turbo common rail Diesel
  • D5
  • D5 AWD
D5244TX 201X–201X 158 kW (215 PS; 212 bhp) 420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) @ 2,400 cc (146.5 in3) Inline-five twin-turbo common rail Diesel

Safety[edit]

IIHS S80:[41]
Moderate overlap frontal offset Good
Small overlap frontal offset Good1
Side impact Good
Roof strength Good2
1 vehicle structure rated "Good"
2 strength-to-weight ratio: 4.26

Special versions[edit]

The S80 is also used as a base for specialised cars such as lengthened limousines, hearses,[42] and ambulances.[43][44] One company producing such models is Nilsson Special Vehicles, based in Laholm, Sweden. Ambulance models receive a completely new body from behind the b-pillar as well as a raised roof. A sliding side door is installed on the right hand side (sometimes on both sides) and the tailgate is enlarged to allow easier access. Nilsson only manufactured ambulances based on the first generation S80. Nilsson has built limousines[45] and hearses[46] based on both generations of the S80.[47] They also manufacture the official state car for a few heads of state, including for the King of Sweden and the King of the Netherlands.[48]

Armored versions are also available. The first generation could be ordered from the factory with the actual armoring done by an outside company. The current model armoured version is available from Czech specialists SVOS. No factory armoring is offered.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New Volvo S90 2016 pricing announced". www.autocar.co.uk. AutoCar. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 2015-12-04. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  2. ^ "IIHS S80 Report". www.iihs.org. Iihs. 1 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-11-05. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  3. ^ a b c "SB-10037893-7638" (PDF). static.nhtsa.gov (SB). Volvo Car Corporation. 4 October 2012. p. 4–5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  4. ^ "The Volvo S80 combines innovative design, leading safety in world terms and a high technology level" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  5. ^ "Volvo S80. Ultra Modern Process With New Sophisticated Electrical System : Press release". volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. Archived from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  6. ^ a b "Volvo 2003 S80 Specification" (PDF). volvoclub.org.uk. 2003. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  7. ^ "1999 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. p. 119. Archived from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  8. ^ "2002 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2001. p. 125. Archived from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  9. ^ "2005 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2004. p. 145. Archived from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  10. ^ "2006 Volvo S80 owner's manual". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2005. p. 151. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  11. ^ "Volvo S80 production data". volvoclub.org.uk. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  12. ^ a b "Volvo Owners Club UK Summary of S80 Launch Press Release". www.volvoclub.org.uk. 1998. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  13. ^ "Volvo Owners Club UK S80 Environment Press Release". www.volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  14. ^ "Volvo Early S80 Press Release" (PDF). volvoclub.org.uk. Volvo Car Corporation. 1998. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  15. ^ "Volvo S80 1999 Specifications" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. 1998. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  16. ^ "Volvo S80: Technical specification" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk. 2003. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
  17. ^ "Volvo S80 | Euro NCAP – For safer cars crash test safety rating". Euro NCAP. Archived from the original on 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
  18. ^ a b c Glenn Brooks (18 January 2016). "Volvo Cars and Changan dissolve China JV". www.just-auto.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-01. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
  19. ^ Todd Levy (12 May 2003). "Volvo S80 Development" (JPG). media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. Archived from the original on 2018-05-25. Retrieved 2018-05-25. Publishing date: 12 April 2006
  20. ^ "Todd Levy (LinkedIn Profile)". se.linkedin.com. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  21. ^ agarberg. "P3 designation being used in official Volvo literature". i548.photobucket.com. Archived from the original (JPG) on 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-20. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
  23. ^ Chris Davies (5 September 2014). "2015 Volvo S80 D4 Geartronic SE Lux review – Updated Swedish Exec Gets Greener". www.carproductstested.com. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-12-13. Layout in archive is slightly messed up
  24. ^ "All New Volvo S80L – launch and start of production in China". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 13 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2017-10-20.
  25. ^ "Volvo S80 owner's manual MY08". new.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 2007. p. 269. Archived from the original on 2017-10-01. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
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