von Kármán–Gabrielli diagram

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The von Kármán–Gabrielli diagram (also Gabrielli–von Kármán diagram, GvK diagram) is a diagram which compares the efficiency of transportation methods by plotting specific tractive force, or specific resistance (ε = P/mgv = E/mgd) against velocity (v). It was first used by Theodore von Kármán and Giuseppe Gabrielli in their 1950 paper on this subject.[1][2][3]

The basic idea is that formally, 1 kWh/ 100 km is equivalent to a force (see Work (physics)#Work and energy), a resistance force amounting to 36 N[4].

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What price speed? Specific power required for propulsion of vehicles", G. Gabrielli and Th. von Kármán, Mechanical Engineering 72 (1950), #10, pp. 775-781.
  2. ^ "What Price Speed - Revisited", The Railway Research Group, Imperial College, Ingenia 22 (March 2005). PDF with the graphs
  3. ^ pp. 385-386, Springer Handbook of Robotics, eds. Bruno Siciliano and Oussama Khatib, Springer, 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-23957-4, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30301-5.
  4. ^ Useful data - Cambridge repository website repository.cam.ac.uk; see page 328.

External links[edit]