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Voriconazole structure.svg
Voriconazole ball-and-stick model.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Pronunciation vor-i-KON-a-zole
Trade names Vfend
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a605022
License data
  • D
Routes of
IV, by mouth (tablets)
Legal status
Legal status
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 96%
Protein binding 58%
Metabolism Liver (CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4)
Biological half-life Dose-dependent
CAS Number 137234-62-9 YesY
ATC code J02AC03 (WHO)
PubChem CID 71616
DrugBank DB00582 YesY
ChemSpider 64684 YesY
KEGG D00578 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:10023 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C16H14F3N5O
Molar mass 349.311 g/mol

Voriconazole (brand name Vfend, Pfizer) is a triazole antifungal medication that is generally used to treat serious, invasive fungal infections. These are generally seen in patients who are immunocompromised, and include invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, and certain emerging fungal infections.[1]


Invasive aspergillosis[edit]

Voriconazole is used to treat invasive aspergillosis, which may occur in immunocompromised patients, including allogeneic BMT, hematologic cancers, and solid organ transplants.[1][2]

For multiple site or CNS aspergillosis a combination therapy of voriconazole and caspofungin should be considered. It is also the recommended treatment for the CNS fungal infections transmitted by epidural injection of contaminated steroids.[3]


Voriconazole has proven to be as effective as a regimen of IV amphotericin B followed by oral fluconazole in patients with culture-proven candidemia. Voriconazole cleared Candida from the bloodstream as quickly as amphotericin B (median 2 days) and showed a trend toward better survival. Voriconazole was also associated with fewer serious adverse events and cases of renal toxicity, but a higher incidence of visual disturbances.[4]

Voriconazole was also proven to offer similar, near-complete efficacy to fluconazole in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis.[5]

Empirical antifungal therapy[edit]

A study compared Voriconazole use to that of amphotericin B in the treatment of patients with unresolved fever despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy who are at risk for breakthrough fungal infections. While overall success rates were 26% for voriconazole and 30.6% for liposomal amphotericin B, there were significantly fewer breakthrough infections with voriconazole, particularly in the patients at highest risk. This study found similar fewer severe reactions and nephrotoxicity but more transient visual disturbances and hallucinations. Voriconazole was also associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization. The authors of this study concluded, "This study demonstrates that voriconazole, a second-generation triazole, is an appropriate agent for empirical antifungal therapy and that its use may reduce the frequency of proven breakthrough fungal infections, preserve renal function, and reduce the frequency of acute infusion-related toxic effects. Formulations of amphotericin B have been the standard of empirical antifungal therapy for nearly 20 years. As this study shows, a second-generation triazole can be used in lieu of amphotericin B for early anti fungal therapy."[6]

Efficacy against emerging fungal pathogens[edit]

In collected case studies, voriconazole has also been proven effective against a number of other serious fungal pathogens. This includes infections by Fusarium spp. and Scedosporium apiospermum (asexual form of Pseudallescheria boydii). Although infrequently seen, these molds are emerging as more common and deadly causes of fungal infection in seriously immunocompromised patients, and the development of voriconazole has been an important advance in their treatment as they are generally resistant to other antifungal agents (including amphotericin B). Voriconazole is the first and only drug ever specifically indicated for their treatment by the FDA. Voriconazole has also been used to treat severe fungal corneal infection.


Voriconazole is well absorbed orally with a bioavailability of 96%, allowing patients to be switched between intravenous and oral administration.

Being metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450, voriconazole interacts with some drugs. Administration is contraindicated with some drugs (such as sirolimus, rifampin, rifabutin, and ergot alkaloids) and dose adjustments and/or monitoring when coadministered with others (including cyclosporine, tacrolimus, omeprazole, and phenytoin). Voriconazole may be safely administered with cimetidine, ranitidine, indinavir, macrolide antibiotics, mycophenolate, and prednisolone.

Because voriconazole is metabolized by the liver, the dose should be halved in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score A or B). There are no data available for patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).

No dose adjustment is necessary for renal impairment or advanced age, but children seem to clear voriconazole faster than adults and drug levels may need monitoring.[7]

Vfend 200 mg oral tablet

Side effects[edit]

The most common side effects associated with voriconazole include transient visual disturbances, fever, rash, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, headache, sepsis, peripheral edema, abdominal pain, and respiratory disorder.

Unlike most adverse effects, which are similar to other azole antifungal agents, visual disturbances (such as blurred vision or increased sensitivity to light) are unique to voriconazole. These have been reported by more than 30% of patients in clinical trials. They generally occur approximately one-half hour after administration, and last approximately 30 minutes. In some patients they may go away after continued use. Studies have shown that there is no damage to the eye or long-term effect on vision. However, patients taking voriconazole should be advised against driving at night or other potentially hazardous tasks.

Though rare, there have been cases of serious hepatic reactions during treatment with voriconazole (a class effect of azole antifungal agents). Liver function tests should be evaluated at the start of and during the course of therapy.

Voriconazole is phototoxic. It has been associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin.[8]


  1. ^ a b Walsh TJ et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Treatment of aspergillosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1;46(3):327-60. PMID 18177225 Free full text
  2. ^ Herbrecht R, Denning D, Patterson T, Bennett J, Greene R, Oestmann J, Kern W, Marr K, Ribaud P, Lortholary O, Sylvester R, Rubin R, Wingard J, Stark P, Durand C, Caillot D, Thiel E, Chandrasekar P, Hodges M, Schlamm H, Troke P, de Pauw B; Invasive Fungal Infections Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Global Aspergillus Study Group (Aug 8, 2002). "Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis". N Engl J Med. 347 (6): 408–15. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa020191. PMID 12167683. 
  3. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/hai/outbreaks/clinicians/guidance_cns.html
  4. ^ Kullberg B, Sobel J, Ruhnke M, Pappas P, Viscoli C, Rex J, Cleary J, Rubinstein E, Church L, Brown J, Schlamm H, Oborska I, Hilton F, Hodges M (22 Oct 2005). "Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial". Lancet. 366 (9495): 1435–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67490-9. PMID 16243088. 
  5. ^ Ally R, Schürmann D, Kreisel W, Carosi G, Aguirrebengoa K, Dupont B, Hodges M, Troke P, Romero A (Nov 1, 2001). "A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial of voriconazole and fluconazole in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients". Clin Infect Dis. 33 (9): 1447–54. doi:10.1086/322653. PMID 11577374. 
  6. ^ Walsh T, Pappas P, Winston D, Lazarus H, Petersen F, Raffalli J, Yanovich S, Stiff P, Greenberg R, Donowitz G, Schuster M, Reboli A, Wingard J, Arndt C, Reinhardt J, Hadley S, Finberg R, Laverdière M, Perfect J, Garber G, Fioritoni G, Anaissie E, Lee J; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (Jan 24, 2002). "Voriconazole compared with liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenia and persistent fever". N Engl J Med. 346 (4): 225–34. doi:10.1056/NEJM200201243460403. PMID 11807146. 
  7. ^ Smith J, Safdar N, Knasinski V, Simmons W, Bhavnani S, Ambrose P, Andes D (April 2006). "Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 50 (4): 1570–2. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.4.1570-1572.2006. PMC 1426935free to read. PMID 16569888. 
  8. ^ Epaulard O, Saint-Raymond C, Villier C, Charles J, Roch N, Beani JC, Leccia MT (Sep 2010). "Multiple aggressive squamous cell carcinomas associated with prolonged voriconazole therapy in four immunocompromised patients". Clin Microbiol Infect. 16 (9): 1362–1364. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03124.x.