Voronezh radar

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Voronezh
Voronezh-m-radar-lekhtusi.jpg
Front of the Voronezh-DM radar array in Pionersky, Kaliningrad, November 2011
Country of originRussia
Introduced2009
No. built8 operational as of 2017
TypePhased array Early-warning radar
FrequencyVoronezh-M: 150–200 MHz (VHF)
Voronezh-DM: 0.1 m wavelength (UHF)[1]
RangeUp to 6 000 km, accompanying 500 targets [2]
PowerClaimed 0.7 MW consumption[3][4]
Other Names77Ya6 (77Я6)
Voronezh radar is located in Russia
Lekhtusi
Lekhtusi
Armavir
Armavir
Pionersky
Pionersky
Mishelevka
Mishelevka
Yeniseysk
Yeniseysk
Barnaul
Barnaul
Orsk
Orsk
Vorkuta
Vorkuta
Olenegorsk
Olenegorsk
Voronezh radar, operational and under construction.
  VHF (-M/-VP) radar
  UHF (-DM) radar

Voronezh radars (Russian: РЛС Воронеж) are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack and aircraft monitoring. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020.[5]

Their common name follows the pattern of Soviet radars in being named after a river, the Voronezh. The previous generation of radar was known as the Daryal (after Darial Gorge), Volga (after Volga River) and Daugava (Daugava River) and the generation before the Dnepr (Dnieper River), and Dnestr (Dniester River).

The Voronezh radars are described as highly prefabricated meaning that they have a set up time of months rather than years and need fewer personnel than previous generations. They are also modular so that a radar can be brought into (partial) operation whilst being incomplete.[6]

Russia has used the launch of these new radars to raise its concerns about US missile defence in Europe. At the launch of the Kaliningrad radar in November 2011 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was quoted as saying "I expect that this step [the launch of the radar] will be seen by our partners as the first signal of our country's readiness to make an adequate response to the threats which the missile shield poses for our strategic nuclear forces."[7]

Types[edit]

All types are phased array radar.[8]

  • Voronezh-M (77Ya6-M) works in the meter range of wavelengths (VHF) and was designed by RTI Mints.
  • Voronezh-DM (77Ya6-DM) works in the decimeter range (UHF) and was designed by NPK NIIDAR. It has a range of up to 10,000 km and is capable of simultaneously tracking 500 objects.[9][10] In 2015, its maximum range is 10,000 km. Its horizon range is 6000 km and vertical range is 8000 km (Due to radar horizon, this range is only apply if target is located at altitude of several thousand kilometers[citation needed]). At a distance of 8000 km, the radar can detect targets the size of a "football ball."[2]
  • Voronezh-VP (77Ya6-VP) works in the meter range (VHF) and was designed by RTI Mints. The only one built has 6 segments instead of the 3 of the Voronezh-M.[11]

A Voronezh-M is claimed to cost 2.85 billion rubles and a Voronezh-DM 4.3 billion rubles.[12][13] This compares to the 5 billion ruble cost of a Dnepr and 19.8 billion rubles for a Daryal,[12] at current prices. Voronezh systems are manufactured at the Saransk Television Plant.[14]

Their designers, Sergey Boev (RTI), Sergey Saprykin (NIIDAR), and Valeriy Karasev (RTI Mints), were jointly awarded the 2011 State Prize for Science and Technology for their work on the Voronezh.[15][16]

Installations[edit]

Dmitry Medvedev orders the input radar "Voronezh-DM" of the troops aerospace defense, Kaliningrad 2011

The first radar, a Voronezh-M, was built in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg. It entered testing in 2005 and was declared "combat ready" in 2012.[17] It is adjacent to the A. Mozhaysky Military Space Academy, which is an officer training centre for the Aerospace Defence Forces.[18] It is described as filling the early warning gap caused by the closure of the radar station at Skrunda in Latvia in 1998,[19] although the Volga radar in Hantsavichy, Belarus, has also been described as doing this, and as a UHF radar Volga has a different resolution from the VHF Voronezh-M.

The second radar is at Armavir in southern Russia on the site of Baronovsky Airfield. It is a Voronezh-DM, a UHF radar and was announced as replacing the coverage lost when the Dnestr radars in Sevastopol and Mukachevo, Ukraine, were closed in 2009. There are actually two radars at this site, the first one covers the south west and could replace the Ukrainian radars.[20] The second one facing south east and could replace the Daryal radar in Gabala that closed at the end of 2012.[21][22]

The third radar is to the south of Pionersky in Kaliningrad, on the site of Dunayevka airfield. It is another UHF Voronezh-DM and is surrounded by countries that are now in NATO. There is only one radar here and it is fully operational in 2014.[23][24]

A radar was built at Mishelevka in Irkutsk on the site of the former, and never operational, Daryal radar which was demolished in 2011.[25] The radar is a Voronezh-VP and is sited close to the former Daryal transmitter building.[26] This radar covers the south and can replace one of the two Dnepr radars at that site. Another Voronezh-VP array was planned which gives 240 degrees coverage [27] and this is ready by 2014.[13][28]

It is planned to build a Voronezh-VP radar at Pechora in 2015 to replace the Daryal there. Similarly a Voronezh-VP is planned for Olenegorsk in 2017 to replace the Dnepr/Daugava.[29] As part of the public negotiations over the future of Gabala Radar Station it had been suggested that the Daryal there could be replaced by a Voronezh-VP in 2017, although the station closed at the end of 2012 instead.[13][14]

Work started on the station at Barnaul in 2013, other locations announced are Omsk, Yeniseysk and Orenburg.[14][30][31]

On 20 December 2017, three new Voronezh radar stations entered service in Russia, thus increasing the total number of operational radars to 8 (Armavir Radar Station operates 2 radars). The radars are located in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Altai Krai and Orenburg Oblast.[32]

Locations[edit]

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Location Coordinates Type Status Details
Lekhtusi Radar Station, Leningrad Oblast 60°16′31.65″N 30°32′45.66″E / 60.2754583°N 30.5460167°E / 60.2754583; 30.5460167 (Lekhtusi Voronezh radar) Voronezh-M Operational Fills gap in coverage caused by loss of the Skrunda-1 radar.[19][33] Fully operational in 2012.[34]
Armavir Radar Station, Krasnodar Krai 44°55′30.38″N 40°59′2.02″E / 44.9251056°N 40.9838944°E / 44.9251056; 40.9838944 (Armavir Voronezh radar) Voronezh-DM Operational Two radars at this site.[20][35] One covers the south west, the second stage covers the south/south-east and could replace the Gabala Radar Station in Azerbaijan.[36] Fully operational in April 2015.[37]
Pionersky Radar Station at former Dunayevka air base, Kaliningrad Oblast 54°51′26″N 20°10′56″E / 54.857294°N 20.18235°E / 54.857294; 20.18235 (Pionersky Voronezh radar) Voronezh-DM Operational Partially operational in November 2011[6] and fully operational in 2014.[23][38]
Mishelevka Radar Station, Irkutsk Oblast 52°51′20.11″N 103°13′53.94″E / 52.8555861°N 103.2316500°E / 52.8555861; 103.2316500 (Mishelevka Voronezh radar) Voronezh-VP Operational Replaced one of the Dnepr radars and Daryal-U radar that was demolished in June 2011.[25] The radar entered trials in March 2012[39], fully operational since 2015.[29][40]
Near Yeniseysk, Krasnoyarsk Krai - but not the former radar site 58°30′22″N 92°02′46″E / 58.506095°N 92.046072°E / 58.506095; 92.046072 (Yeniseysk) Voronezh-DM Operational Fully operational in December 2017.[32][41]
Near Barnaul, Altai Krai 53°08′21.1″N 83°40′52.5″E / 53.139194°N 83.681250°E / 53.139194; 83.681250 (Barnaul) Voronezh-DM Operational Fully operational in December 2017.[32][31][42]
Near Orsk, Orenburg Oblast 51°16′24″N 58°57′33″E / 51.273346°N 58.959030°E / 51.273346; 58.959030 (Orsk) Voronezh-M Operational Fully operational in December 2017.[32][43]
Near Vorkuta, Komi - but not the former radar site 67°36′50.3″N 63°45′19.5″E / 67.613972°N 63.755417°E / 67.613972; 63.755417 (Vorkuta radar station) Voronezh-M Under construction Construction started. Will replace the current Daryal radar at this site.[44]
Olenegorsk Radar Station, Murmansk Oblast 68°6′59.63″N 33°55′8.69″E / 68.1165639°N 33.9190806°E / 68.1165639; 33.9190806 (Olenegorsk radar station) roughly Voronezh-VP Under construction Construction started. Will replace the Dnestr/Daugava radar at this site.[29]
Near Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula 44°34′44″N 33°23′10″E / 44.5788°N 33.3862°E / 44.5788; 33.3862 (Sevastopol Dnepr radar) Voronezh-SM Planned Will replace the current Dnestr radar at this site.[45]

References[edit]

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  15. ^ "Указ "О присуждении Государственных премий Российской Федерации в области науки и технологий 2011 года"" [Decree: On the awarding of the state prizes of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology 2011]. Kremlin.ru. 2012-06-08. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-06-18. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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  18. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2006-01-30). "Voronezh-DM radar is in Lekhtusi". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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  20. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (2009-02-14). "Two radars at Armavir". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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External links[edit]