Vostok (rocket family)

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Vostok
Semyorka Rocket R7 by Sergei Korolyov in VDNH Ostankino RAF0540.jpg
Vostok 8K72K rocket on display in Moscow at the All Russia Exhibition Centre
FunctionCarrier rocket
ManufacturerRKK Energia
Country of originSoviet Union
Size
Mass280,000–290,000 kg (620,000–640,000 lb)
Stages3
Capacity
Payload to LEO4,725 kilograms (10,417 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7
ComparableAtlas
Titan
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesBaikonur: LC-1/5, 31/6
Plesetsk: LC-41/1, 43/3, 43/4
Total launchesVostok-L: 4
Vostok-K: 13
Vostok-2: 45
Vostok-2M: 94
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
SuccessesVostok-L: 3
Vostok-K: 11
Vostok-2: 40
Vostok-2M: 92
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
FailuresVostok-L: 1
Vostok-K: 2
Vostok-2: 5
Vostok-2M: 2
First flight15 May 1960 (Vostok-L)
Last flight29 August 1991 (Vostok-2M)
Notable payloadsVostok
Zenit
Meteor
First stage (Block B, V, G, D)
Engines1 RD-107-8D74-1959
Thrust970.86 kN
Burn time118 seconds
FuelKerosene/LOX
Second stage (Block A)
Engines1 RD-108-8D75-1959
Thrust912 kN
Burn time301 seconds
FuelKerosene/LOX
Third stage (Block E)
Engines1 RD-0109
Thrust54.5 kN
Burn time365 seconds
FuelKerosene/LOX

Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM and was designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) and the first manned spacecraft (Vostok) in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets.

On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk during a fueling operation, killing 48 people. An investigation into a similar – but avoided – accident revealed that the substitution of lead-based for tin-based solder in hydrogen peroxide filters allowed the breakdown of the H2O2, thus causing the resultant explosion.

Variants[edit]

The major versions of the rocket were:

Vostok 8K72K[edit]

  • First Stage — Block B, V, G, D (four strap-on boosters)
    • Gross mass: 43,300 kg
    • Empty mass: 3,710 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 4 x 99,000 kgf (971 kN) = 3.88 MN
    • Isp: 313 seconds (3.07 km/s)
    • Burn time: 118 s
    • Isp(sl): 256 seconds (2.51 km/s)
    • Diameter: 2.68 m
    • Span: 8.35 m
    • Length: 19.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engines: 1 x RD-107-8D74-1959 per booster = 4
  • Second Stage — Block A (core stage)
    • Gross mass: 100,400 kg
    • Empty mass: 6,800 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 912 kN
    • Isp: 315 seconds (3.09 km/s)
    • Burn time: 301 s
    • Isp(sl): 248 seconds (2.43 km/s)
    • Diameter: 2.99 m
    • Length: 28.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-108-8D75-1959
  • Third Stage — Block E
    • Gross mass: 7,775 kg
    • Empty mass: 1,440 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 54.5 kN
    • Isp: 326 seconds (3.20 km/s)
    • Burn time: 365 s
    • Diameter: 2.56 m
    • Span: 2.56 m
    • Length: 2.84 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-0109

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]