Model of the Vostok capsule with its upper stage
|Operator||Soviet space program|
|Harvard designation||1961 Tau 1|
|Mission duration||1 day, 1 hour, 18 minutes|
|Manufacturer||Experimental Design OKB-1|
|Launch mass||4,731 kilograms (10,430 lb)|
|Callsign||Орёл (Oryol - "Eagle")|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||August 6, 1961, 06:00UTC|
|Launch site||Baikonur 1/5|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||August 7, 1961, 07:18UTC|
|Perigee||166 kilometres (103 mi)|
|Apogee||232 kilometres (144 mi)|
|Epoch||6 August 1961, 02:00:00 UTC|
Vostok 2 (Russian: Восток-2, Orient 2 or East 2) was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961 to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body. Titov orbited the Earth over 17 times, exceeding the single orbit of Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 − as well as the suborbital spaceflights of American astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom aboard their respective Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4 missions. Indeed, Titov's number of orbits and flight time would not be surpassed by an American astronaut until Gordon Cooper's Mercury-Atlas 9 spaceflight in May 1963.
After the flight of Vostok 1, Sergei Korolev took a short vacation in Crimea where he began working out the flight plan for the next mission. There were considerable arguments over the duration of the mission as flight doctors argued for no more than three orbits. The flight of Korabl-Sputnik 2 nine months earlier had carried two dogs on a six orbit mission, during which the animals had experienced convulsions and thus all subsequent Vostok missions were limited to three orbits maximum. Although dogs and humans were very different physiologically, the doctors were worried about the risks posed on a longer flight. There was also the purely practical aspect of spacecraft recovery. If Vostok 2 flew three orbits, reentry and landing would take place in the wide open steppes of southern Russia, the landing site moving steadily further west with each orbit. Orbits 8-13 would drop the capsule into the Pacific Ocean, after which landing would again occur in Soviet territory, but in the remote, frozen wastes of Siberia. Thus, it was necessary to spend a full 24 hours in space before it would be once again possible to land in the prime recovery area in southern Russia. The three orbit limit thus would not only make landing easy, but minimize risks to the cosmonaut posed by prolonged weightlessness.
Korolev argued that since it would still take an entire day for landing in southern Russia to be possible again, there was no reason not to go for it. Besides, he argued, missions of the future would inevitably require lengthy stays in space. The flight was targeted for somewhere between July 25 and August 5. To ensure safe radiation levels, balloons equipped with Geiger counters were flown aloft, in addition similar equipment would be carried on Vostok 2. Several enhancements were made to Vostok 2, including an improved TV transmission system and better climate control systems.
Liftoff took place August 6 at 8:57 AM Moscow time and booster performance was almost flawless, placing the spacecraft into a 184x244 km orbit.
The flight was an almost complete success, marred only by a heater that had inadvertently been turned off prior to liftoff and that allowed the inside temperature to drop to 50 °F (10 °C),:113 a bout of space sickness, and a troublesome re-entry when the reentry module failed to separate cleanly from its service module.
Unlike Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1, Titov took manual control of the spacecraft for a short while. Another change came when the Soviets admitted that Titov did not land with his spacecraft. Titov would claim in an interview that he ejected from his capsule as a test of an alternative landing system; it is now known that all Vostok program landings were performed this way.
As of 2017, Titov remains the youngest person to reach space. He was a month short of 26 years old at launch.
|Pilot||Andrian G. Nikolayev|
- Mass: 4,731 kg (10,430 lb)
- Perigee: 183 km (114 mi)
- Apogee: 244 km (152 mi)
- Inclination: 64.93°
- Period: 88.46 minutes
Gherman Titov launched from Gagarin's Start at Baikonur Cosmodrome on 6 August 1961 at 06:00 UTC aboard the Vostok 2 space capsule. Radio personality Yuri Levitan interrupted Radio Moscow programming with an announcement of the flight at 07:45 UTC.
Nausea set in after Titov achieved free fall in orbit, causing him to vomit when he tried to eat one of his planned meals. Soviet space program officials suspected disturbance of Titov's vestibular system was to blame, leading them to begin early investigations into what is now known as space adaptation syndrome, or space sickness. Titov is believed to be the first spacefarer to experience the condition.
Titov took manual control of the capsule's attitude for a time as he passed over Africa on his first orbit and would again at the end of the seventh orbit; the controls were reported to function well. Titov exchanged greetings with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev as he passed over the Soviet Union at the end of his first orbit, replicating Gagarin's feat. During his flight the first manual photographs were taken from orbit, thus setting a record for modern space photography. He also was the first person to film the Earth using, for ten minutes, a professional quality Konvas-Avtomat movie camera.
A camera aboard the capsule transmitted smiling pictures of Titov to the ground as he passed over Soviet territory on the fifth orbit. Titov settled down to sleep during the seventh orbit; he awoke over eight hours later, 37 minutes after the scheduled end of his sleep period. Sleep did not relieve Titov's serious discomfort; he still felt very ill after awaking. After 12 orbits Titov suddenly began to recover, and became "completely functional and fully fit".:293–294
Detailed information about the radio frequencies used by the spacecraft were made public before Titov's flight; listening posts around the world picked up voice and telemetry signals from Vostok 2, allaying suspicions that the spaceflight might have been faked.
As on Vostok 1, the Vostok 2 service module failed to detach from the reentry module when commanded and reentry began with the former still attached; the conjoined modules gyrated violently until aerodynamic heating burned through the straps still holding them together. Titov ejected from the capsule as planned and parachuted separately to land at 0718 UTC on 7 August 1961, near Krasny Kut, Saratov Oblast.Just prior to ejecting, Titov turned his head to look at something and so got his face rammed into his helmet at ejection, giving himself a bloody nose.
In 1964, the Vostok 2 capsule was reused as a ballast weight in a test of an experimental parachute system planned for the Voskhod capsule. The prototype malfunctioned, shattering Vostok 2 into tiny pieces.:117
- "The First Day In Orbit" (PDF). Flight. London: Iliffe Transport Publications. 80 (2736): 208. 17 August 1961. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "Google Maps - Vostok 2 Landing Site - Monument". Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Missiles and Spaceflight" (PDF). Flight. London: Iliffe Transport Publications. 80 (2741): 467. 21 September 1961. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Trajectory Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
- Francis French; Colin Burgess (2007). Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965. Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1146-9. OCLC 71210133.
- Grahn, Sven. "The flight of Vostok-2". Sven's Space Place. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- Ezell, Edward Clinton; Ezell, Linda Neuman (1978). "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project". NASA History Series. NASA (NASA Special Publication-4209). Archived from the original on 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- Wade, Mark. "Astronaut Statistics". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- ""Group Space Flight" Described − Part 2" (PDF). Flight. London: Iliffe Transport Publications. 82 (2791): 389–391. 6 September 1962. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenburg, Byron K.; Money, Kenneth E. (17 January 1990). "Symptoms and Signs of Space Motion Sickness on SPACELAB-1". In Crampton, George. Motion and Space Sickness (illustrated ed.). CRC Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-8493-4703-3.
- "Titov". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "The first pictures of Earth marks 50 years". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Siddiqi, Asif A. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974. NASA. Archived from the original on 2006-10-08.
- "Google Maps - Vostok 2 Landing Site - Monument Location". Retrieved 2010-12-27.
- "Google Maps - Vostok 2 Landing Site - Monument Photo". Retrieved 2010-12-27.
- "Google Maps - Vostok 2 Landing Site - Monument Photo closeup". Retrieved 2010-12-27.