Vox (Spanish political party)

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Vox
PresidentSantiago Abascal
Secretary-GeneralJavier Ortega Smith
Founded17 December 2013
Split fromPeople's Party
Membership (March 2019)Increase 40,000[1]
IdeologyRight-wing populism[2][3]
Ultranationalism[4][5]
Neoliberalism[6][7][8][9]
Conservatism[10]
Soft Euroscepticism[11]
Zionism[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]
Anti-Islam[19]
Centralism[20][21]
Monarchism[22]
Political positionRight-wing[23][24] to
far-right[25]
European affiliationNone
Colours     Green
Congress of Deputies
0 / 350
Senate
1 / 265
European Parliament
0 / 54
Regional parliaments
13 / 1,268
Mayors in Spain
4 / 8,122
Town councillors
17 / 67,611
Website
www.voxespana.es

Vox (Latin for "voice", often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈboks]) is a political party in Spain founded on 17 December 2013, by former members of the People's Party (PP). The party is described variously as right-wing,[26][27] right-wing populist,[2][28][3] or far-right.[29][30][31][32]

History[edit]

Javier Ortega Smith giving a speech in 2018 in Vistalegre.
Results of Vox (2014 European elections in Spain)

Vox was founded on 17 December 2013,[33] and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014.[34][35] The reasons for this schism seem to be the way the incumbent PP government dealt with the issue of the violence of separatist group ETA, the fiscal policy of the PP, and the desire for a more centralized government in contrast to the current, quasi-federal political system ("State of Autonomies") instituted in 1978. Vox opposes Basque and Catalan separatism in general.[35] VOX have labelled themselves as a right-wing and Christian democratic party. The first provisional chairman was the philosopher José Luis González Quirós [es] (provisional until the party's internal election in late 2014). Other members are Santiago Abascal and José Antonio Ortega Lara (well known for having been kidnapped by ETA for more than a year).

Vox ran for the first time in the 2014 European elections but narrowly failed to win a seat in the European Parliament.[36]

In September 2014 the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as new President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.

In the fall of 2017 the number of members increased 20% in forty days as a consequence of the terrorist attack in Barcelona and the Catalan independence process.[31]

After the Catalan referendum of 2017 and the start of a Spanish constitutional crisis, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017.[37] After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians.[38]

On 10 September 2018 Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member.[39] On 2 December 2018 they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election,[40] entering for the first time in a regional parliament. It supported the coallition regional government by Ciudadanos and the Popular Party. With this result, Vox was also given a first seat in the Senate of Spain, which was taken by Francisco José Alcaraz.[41]

Ideology[edit]

Vox takes a pro-life stance on abortion and opposes same-sex marriage because they consider the Spanish word for marriage, "matrimonio", to be etymologically inadequate for same sex couples. Vox seeks to create a new type of union, called a "civil union", to replace same-sex marriage.[42]

Starting with a focus in economically liberal stances and recentralization proposals, the focus of their message shifted towards stances compatible with European right-wing populism,[43] endorsing anti-Islam as well as criticism of multiculturalism,[43] but at the same time promoting immigration from countries of Latin America in order to repopulate Spain.[44] Their view of European Union is that of a soft euroscepticism, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because they consider Spanish sovereignty to reside in the Spanish nation alone.[45] They propose to eliminate Spain's autonomous communities.[46] In addition, they seek the return of Gibraltar to full Spanish sovereignty.[47]

Vox is considered antifeminist,[48] and wants to repeal the gender violence law,[49] which is considered as "discriminant against one of the sexes" and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse".[50]

The party pleads for the closure of fundamentalist mosques as well as the arrest and expulsion of extremist imams[50].

According to Xavier Casals, the warlike ultranationalism in Vox, unifying part of its ideology up to this point, is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called "España Viva", but also with a Catholic-inspired culture.[4]

Electoral performance[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Congress of Deputies
Election Seats Vote % Status Leader
2015
0 / 350
58,114 (#15) 0.23 N/A Santiago Abascal
2016
0 / 350
47,182 (#13) 0.20 N/A Santiago Abascal
2019
0 / 350
TBD TBD N/A Santiago Abascal

Senate[edit]

Senate
Election Seats Leader
2015
0 / 208
Santiago Abascal
2016
0 / 208
Santiago Abascal

European Parliament[edit]

European Parliament
Election Seats Vote %
2014
0 / 54
246,833 (#11) 1.57
2019
0 / 54
TBD TBD

Regional parliaments[edit]

Election Seats Vote % Status
Andalusia 2018
12 / 109
395,978 (#5) 10.97 Opposition
Asturias 2015
0 / 45
3,226 (#10) 0.59 N/A
Basque Country 2016
0 / 75
771 (#12) 0.07 N/A
Canary Islands 2015
0 / 60
1,814 (#16) 0.20 N/A
Cantabria 2015
0 / 35
1,119 (#12) 0.34 N/A
Castile and León 2015
0 / 84
9,333 (#9) 0.68 N/A
Castilla–La Mancha 2015
0 / 33
5,302 (#8) 0.48 N/A
Extremadura 2015
0 / 65
1,786 (#9) 0.28 N/A
Madrid 2015
0 / 129
37,491 (#7) 1.18 N/A
Murcia 2015
0 / 45
5,427 (#9) 0.85 N/A
Valencian Community 2015
0 / 99
10,336 (#10) 0.42 N/A

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ballesteros, Roberto R. (5 March 2019). "Vox saca 'músculo financiero': recauda más de 200.000 euros en algo más de 24 horas". El Confidencial. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b La Sexta (14 February 2014). "VOX, el partido a la derecha del PP que se come el voto ultra". lasexta.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 January 2018. La ideología de VOX tiene una línea conservadora clara: centralismo a ultranza y no a los nacionalismos
  3. ^ a b Varela, Manuela (29 July 2017). ""Hay un gran espacio a la derecha del PP, pero nadie ha sabido aún cómo ocuparlo"". El Confidencial.
    Ruiz, Isabel M. (26 December 2017). "Sin espacio en España para la nueva derecha populista". El Mundo.
  4. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (19 January 2019). "Vox habla sobre Vox. Tres libros para conocer el partido". Agenda Pública. Su ideario parece hallarse aún en construcción y tiene como eje vertebrador un ultranacionalismo bélico asociado a la “Reconquista” o a una “Covadonga 2.0”, El partido lo identifica con una visión biológica y palingenética de la patria, la “España viva”, pero también con una cultura de inspiración católica.
  5. ^ Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  6. ^ Rodríguez Palop, María Eugenia (30 January 2019). "El partido de Abascal es más próximo al neoliberalismo de los ultras latinoamericanos que al discurso obrerista de Salvini o Le Pen". ctxt.es. En España, Vox representa una propuesta de corte abiertamente neoliberal y desregulatorio, y ha renunciado tanto a las dosis de aparente proteccionismo económico como a la retórica de las clases trabajadoras, que exhiben una buena parte de las derechas en Europa. Vox ha querido acercarse más a los ultras latinoamericanos como Bolsonaro, que a Salvini o a Le Pen.
  7. ^ Urbán Crespo, Miguel (7 January 2019). "Repaso histórico de la ultraderecha española hasta el auge de VOX". Viento sur. Desde el punto de vista social, el discurso de VOX es claramente neoliberal, desmarcándose al menos en parte de otras ultraderechas que añaden, aunque sea sobre todo retórica, un discurso proteccionista (Trump) o estatista (Salvini) e incluso de cierto “chovinismo del Estado de bienestar” (Le Pen). De esta forma, podemos decir que Abascal es mucho más Bolsonaro que Le Pen.
  8. ^ "En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX". panampost.com (in Spanish).
  9. ^ "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". letraslibres.com (in Spanish). su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
  10. ^ "Europas Gegner zeigen ihre Muskeln". Handelsblatt (in German). 19 April 2014..
  11. ^ Abascal, Santiago (8 November 2015). "Cádiz, Covadonga y Bruselas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish).
  12. ^ Maestre, Antonio (8 December 2018). "Manual de VOX para antifascistas emocionales". La Marea. Porque VOX es sionista, como se empeña en demostrar Rocío Monasterio cada vez que tiene ocasión
  13. ^ Fernández, Daniel (20 October 2018). "El titiritero de la derecha se pasa a Vox". El Plural. El actual ‘gurú’ de Abascal es un declarado sionista a favor de financiar a Israel
  14. ^ Roldán, Carlos (23 November 2018). "VOX: la trampa del Nuevo orden Mundial". La Tribuna de España. Hay además, un dato definitivo y definitorio de qué es realmente VOX: su defensa encendida del sionismo político
  15. ^ "Gerard Bellalta, empresario catalán: "Vox es un caballo de Troya del sionismo, disidencia controlada por la élite globalista y Abascal un caradura"". Noticiero Universal. 21 September 2018. Bellalta ha hecho hincapié en la presencia en las filas de Vox de Rafael Bardají, muy vinculado a la derecha anglosionista norteamericana e incluso se trataría, según algunos, del hombre de Israel en España.
  16. ^ "Para la derecha sionista de VOX el ataque a Siria es "justo y necesario"". Despierta Info. 16 April 2018.
  17. ^ "La derecha sionista ataca de nuevo: Rafael Bardají (VOX) aplaude el bombardeo de Trump contra Siria". Alerta Digital. 15 April 2018.
  18. ^ McMurtry, Alyssa (3 December 2018). "Spanish far right party wins seats in an election for the first time since Franco". The JC. While Vox’s leadership has expressed its distrust of certain immigrant groups such as Muslims, it is not outwardly antisemitic and has voiced its strong support for Israel.
  19. ^ García Rey, Marcos (18 March 2017). "Los musulmanes de España entre dos fuegos: el yihadismo y la extrema derecha xenófoba". El Confidencial.
  20. ^ "El programa de Vox para "reconquistar" España". RTVE. 3 December 2018.
  21. ^ Remírez de Ganuza, Carmen (17 January 2014). "Nace Vox pidiendo la eliminación de los parlamentos regionales". El Mundo.
  22. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/08/world/europe/spain-vox-party.html
  23. ^ Luppicini & Baarda 2017, p. 208: "He continued the jibing, announcing that several members of 'Popular Party' will be integrated back into political life through the new right wing Christian 'Popular Party', a breakaway party 'VOX' ('Voice') and the anti-separatist UPyD"
  24. ^ "WELCOME TO VOX Spain". The Leader. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
    Stokes, Bradley (25 July 2018). "Spain's new PP leader seeks to move the party 'back to its roots'". The Olive Press. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ de Prada, Juan Manuel de Prada (13 October 2018). "Voxeando". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  28. ^ Loucaides, Darren (2 July 2018). "Will Bannonism Play in Spain?". Slate.
  29. ^ González-Enríquez, Carmen (14 February 2017). "The Spanish Exception: Unemployment, inequality and immigration, but no right-wing populist parties" (PDF). elcano Royal Institute: 31, 34–34 – via elcano. The extreme right was disconcerted by transition to democracy and unable to react: soon it was divided into several groups, each of them claiming to be the true heirs of Falange Española, losing a common leadership. They gradually lost the voters they had gathered in 1979, who fled towards the Alianza Popular or abstention, and they have not gained near 1 per cent of the vote in parliamentary elections since. During the two last decades they have not even reached 0.5 per cent in those elections. Their most salient success was the 2 per cent of all votes obtained in the 2014 European elections by a new party, Vox, led by a former Partido Popular leader, who almost managed to obtain a seat. But this same party won less than 0.3 per cent in the 2015 and 2016 parliamentary elections (figure 20).
    Regué, Júlia (19 August 2018). "Radiografía de la extrema derecha en Catalunya". El Periódico (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 September 2018.
    Barriaux, Marianne; Villalobos, Alvaro (15 October 2017). "Spain's far-right gains visibility in Catalonia crisis". The Local. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  30. ^ Precedo, José (17 December 2017). "Vox: la ultraderecha irrelevante en las urnas agita los juzgados". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
    Minder, Raphael (27 March 2018). "Arrest of Catalan Leader Tests Spain, Separatists and E.U." The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  31. ^ a b "La afiliación al partido ultraderechista VOX aumenta un 20% en 40 días". Público (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Spain: No country for old fascists". Politico Europe. 26 December 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
    "Spain proves sterile ground for far-right parties". Deutsche Welle. 31 May 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  33. ^ "Política de privacidad de VOX España". voxespana.es/aviso-legal (in Spanish). Aviso Legal. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
  34. ^ Quintero, L.F.; Alonsof, Mariano (14 January 2014). "Nace Vox, el partido político de Santiago Abascal y Ortega Lara". Libertad Digital. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  35. ^ a b O'Leary, Elisabeth (16 January 2014). "Spanish ruling party rebels launch new conservative party". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Tristeza y decepción en Vox tras los resultados de las Elecciones Europeas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 26 May 2014.
  37. ^ Paradinas, Marcos (3 November 2017). "VOX: "El 21D es fruto de un pacto oculto entre Rajoy y los golpistas"". elplural.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  38. ^ García, Jesús (11 October 2017). "El TSJ catalán admite la querella de Vox por rebelión contra Puigdemont". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  39. ^ "Los ex 'populares' Juan Antonio Morales y Antonio Pozo se incorporan a Vox". Región Digital (in Spanish). 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  40. ^ "Spain far-right Vox party gains foothold in Andalusia election". BBC News. 3 December 2018.
  41. ^ "¿Quién es Francisco José Alcaraz, el primer senador de Vox?". 20 Minutos (in Spanish). 19 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  42. ^ Alejo Vidal-Quadras Roca (guest) (7 March 2014). VOX se pronuncia sobre el matrimonio gay (Video). Intereconomiatube via YouTube. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  43. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (21 April 2015). "Vox y su campaña contra la inmigración masiva". ElManifiesto.com.
  44. ^ https://www.laopiniondezamora.es/zamora/2019/01/21/vox-apela-inmigracion-buena-atajar/1138744.html
  45. ^ Abascal, Santiago (8 November 2015). "Cádiz, Covadonga y Bruselas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 July 2018. Porque estamos convencidos de que nación y soberanía son conceptos íntimamente relacionados. Si somos soberanos es porque somos una Nación y no tenemos derecho a entregar lo que hemos recibido de nuestros mayores. España debe estar en Europa pero sin complejos, reivindicando el papel histórico, industrial y agrícola que merecemos. No debemos ser vasallos de Merkel ni de Tsipras. Ni camareros de Merkel ni paganos de las propinas de Tsipras. Las Cortes de Cádiz proclamaron que la Nación española era libre e independiente y que no podía ser patrimonio de ninguna familia o persona. Proclamaron asimismo que la soberanía reside esencialmente en la Nación, que es la única que tiene derecho a establecer sus leyes fundamentales. Esta declaración de soberanía ha sido una constante en toda nuestra historia constitucional.
  46. ^ Cañizares, María Jesús (17 December 2018). "Vox: ¿fenómeno mediático o real?". Crónica Global.
  47. ^ Spain's Vox party wins seats as far-right party surges for first time since Franco, CNN, December 3, 2018
  48. ^ Jones, Sam (9 December 2018). "Far right victories in Andalucía send shockwave through Spanish politics". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  49. ^ Álvarez, Pilar; Valdés, Isabel (3 December 2018). "Derogar la ley de violencia de género y otros planes de Vox contra el feminismo". El Pais. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  50. ^ a b Arroyo, Jorge Rodriguez (3 December 2018). "Far-right Spanish political party Vox: What are its policies?". El Pais.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]