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Vox (political party)

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Vox
PresidentSantiago Abascal
Secretary-GeneralJavier Ortega Smith
Founded17 December 2013
Split fromPeople's Party
Membership (March 2019)Increase 40,000[1]
IdeologyRight-wing populism[2]
Ultranationalism[3][4][5]
National conservatism[6]
Neoliberalism[5][7][8][9]
Neoconservatism[10][11]
Soft Euroscepticism
Zionism[12][13]
Anti-Islam[14][15]
Centralism[16][17]

Spanish nationalism[18]
Political positionRight-wing[19][20] to
far-right[21]
European affiliationNone
Colours     Green
Congress of Deputies
24 / 350
Senate
1 / 265
European Parliament
0 / 54
Regional parliaments
23 / 1,268
Mayors in Spain
4 / 8,122
Town councillors
17 / 67,611
Website
www.voxespana.es

Vox (Latin for "voice", often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈboks]) is a political party in Spain founded on 17 December 2013, by former members of the People's Party (PP). The party is described variously as right-wing,[22][23] right-wing populist,[24] or far-right.[14][25][26][27][28]

History

Javier Ortega Smith giving a speech in 2018 in Vistalegre.
Results of Vox (2014 European elections in Spain)

Vox was founded on 17 December 2013,[29] and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014[30][31] as a split from the People's Party. This schism was interpreted as an offshoot of "neocon"[32] or "social conservative"[33] PP party members. The party platform sought to rewrite the constitution to abolish regional autonomy and parliaments.[31] Several of their promoters (for example: Alejo Vidal-Quadras, José Antonio Ortega Lara or Santiago Abascal) had been members of the platform "reconversion.es" that issued a manifesto in 2012 vouching for the recentralization of the State.[34] Vidal-Quadras was proclaimed as the first chairman in March 2014.[35][n. 1]

The initial funding, totalling nearly 972,000 euros, came from individual money transfers by supporters of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI).[34][37]

Vox ran for the first time in the 2014 European elections but narrowly failed to win a seat in the European Parliament.[38]

In September 2014 the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as new President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.

The party participated in the 2015 and the 2016 election, but did not do well, scoring 0,23% and 0,20% of votes.

In the fall of 2017 the number of members increased 20% in forty days as a consequence of the terrorist attack in Barcelona and the Catalan independence process.[27]

After the Catalan referendum of 2017 and the start of a Spanish constitutional crisis, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017.[39] After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians.[40]

On 10 September 2018 Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member.[41] On 2 December 2018 they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election,[42] entering a regional parliament for the first time. It supported the coalition regional government by Ciudadanos and the Popular Party. With this result, Vox was also given a first seat in the Senate of Spain, which was taken by Francisco José Alcaraz.[43]

The party obtained 10,26% of votes in the 2019 general election, electing 24 Deputies and entering the Congress of Deputies for the first time in its history.[44]

Ideology

Starting with a focus in economically liberal stances and recentralization proposals, the focus of their message shifted towards stances compatible with European right-wing populism,[45] endorsing anti-Islam as well as criticism of multiculturalism and criticizing immigration from Muslim countries,[46][47] but at the same time promoting immigration from countries of Latin America in order to repopulate Spain.[48] Their view of European Union is that of a soft euroscepticism, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because they consider Spanish sovereignty to reside in the Spanish nation alone.[non-primary source needed][49] They propose to eliminate Spain's autonomous communities.[50] In addition, they seek the return of Gibraltar to full Spanish sovereignty.[51]

Vox is considered antifeminist,[52] and wants to repeal the gender violence law,[53] which they see as "discriminant against one of the sexes" and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse".[54]

The party pleads for the closure of fundamentalist mosques as well as the arrest and expulsion of extremist imams.[54] Vox has openly called for the deportation of tens of thousands of Muslims from Spain.[55] In 2019, the party's leader demanded a Reconquista or reconquest of Spain,[56] explicitly referencing a new expulsion of Muslim immigrants from the country.[57]

According to Xavier Casals, the warlike ultranationalism in Vox, unifying part of its ideology up to this point, is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called "España Viva", but also with a Catholic-inspired culture.[3] The party discourse has also revived the myth of the Antiespaña ("Anti-Spain"), an umbrella term created in the 1930s by the domestic ultranationalist forces to designate the (inner) "Enemies of Spain".[5][58]

According to Guillermo Fernández Vázquez, Vox's discourse (economically anti-statist & neoliberal as well as morally authoritarian) is similar to Jörg Haider's FPÖ or Jean Marie Le Pen's National Front from the 1980s, thus likening the emergence of the party to an archaic stage of current radical right parties, more worried about the need to modernize their image than Vox; the later's approach to cultural issues would be in line with old school Spanish nationalist parties, restricting the scope of "culture" to "language and tradition".[59][60]

Vox openly endorses the State of Israel. The party has however also appealed to conspiracy theories invoking the figure of Jewish philanthropist George Soros as mastermind behind Catalan separatism and the alleged "Islamization" of Europe,[61] as well as it features a number of former nazis in party cadres and lists.[62][63]

Electoral performance

Cortes Generales

Cortes Generales
Election Congress Senate Leader Status
Vote % Score Seats +/– Seats +/–
2015 58,114 0.2 15th
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Santiago Abascal No seats
2016 47,182 0.2 13th
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Santiago Abascal No seats
2019 2,677,173 10.3 5th
24 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg24
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Santiago Abascal Opposition

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election Vote % Score Seats +/–
2014 246,833 1.6 11th
0 / 54
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2019 TBD TBD TBD
0 / 54

Regional parliaments

Election Vote % Score Seats Status
Andalusia 2018 396,607 11.0 5th
12 / 109
Opposition
Asturias 2015 3,226 0.6 10th
0 / 45
No seats
Basque Country 2016 771 0.1 12th
0 / 75
No seats
Canary Islands 2015 1,814 0.2 16th
0 / 60
No seats
Cantabria 2015 1,119 0.3 12th
0 / 35
No seats
Castile and León 2015 9,333 0.7 9th
0 / 84
No seats
Castilla–La Mancha 2015 5,302 0.5 8th
0 / 33
No seats
Extremadura 2015 1,786 0.3 9th
0 / 65
No seats
Madrid 2015 37,491 1.2 7th
0 / 129
No seats
Murcia 2015 5,427 0.9 9th
0 / 45
No seats
Valencian Community 2019 278,947 10.6 5th
10 / 99
Opposition

Notes

  1. ^ Vidal Quadras later left the party after the political failure at the European election and his unability to impose his stances in the party. He would argue in 2018 that the party shifted from a "liberal conservative, europeanist, and reformist" proposal (represented by himself), to a "Nationalist, revisionist, euroesceptic and confessional" one.[36]

References

  1. ^ Ballesteros, Roberto R. (5 March 2019). "Vox saca 'músculo financiero': recauda más de 200.000 euros en algo más de 24 horas". El Confidencial. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Hay un gran espacio a la derecha del PP, pero nadie ha sabido aún cómo ocuparlo". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2018-12-05..
  3. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (19 January 2019). "Vox habla sobre Vox. Tres libros para conocer el partido". Agenda Pública. Su ideario parece hallarse aún en construcción y tiene como eje vertebrador un ultranacionalismo bélico asociado a la “Reconquista” o a una “Covadonga 2.0”, El partido lo identifica con una visión biológica y palingenética de la patria, la “España viva”, pero también con una cultura de inspiración católica.
  4. ^ Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  5. ^ a b c Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública.
  6. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck (28 April 2019). "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu..
  7. ^ Álvarez Barba, Yago. "Si a HSBC y Goldman Sachs les gusta Vox, a ti no te debería gustar". elsaltodiario.com. Diría eso de que “con esto a Vox se le ha caído la careta”, pero es que no creo que Vox se haya puesto nunca caretas que oculten su vertiente neoliberal y de servidumbre a las élites financieras.
  8. ^ "En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX". panampost.com (in Spanish).
  9. ^ "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". letraslibres.com (in Spanish). su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
  10. ^ Guy, Jack (27 April 2019). "Spain's far-right is back -- with a difference". CNN. Torreblanca added that Vox is [...] very liberal economically," rejecting the statist economics of France's National Rally, for example. "I'd say it's a 'neocon' party in the American sense," he added
  11. ^ Gil Calvo, Enrique (8 January 2019). "Confrontación". El País. Es el nuevo encuadre de la derecha neocon, [...] desde Bolsonaro a Abascal [...] con Vox
  12. ^ Maestre, Antonio (8 December 2018). "Manual de VOX para antifascistas emocionales". La Marea. Porque VOX es sionista, como se empeña en demostrar Rocío Monasterio cada vez que tiene ocasión
  13. ^ McMurtry, Alyssa (3 December 2018). "Spanish far right party wins seats in an election for the first time since Franco". The JC. While Vox’s leadership has expressed its distrust of certain immigrant groups such as Muslims, it is not outwardly antisemitic and has voiced its strong support for Israel.
  14. ^ a b Field, Bonnie; Rodríguez-Teruel, Juan (26 April 2019). "Can Spain's elections on Sunday deliver a functioning government?". Monkey Cage.
  15. ^ García Rey, Marcos (18 March 2017). "Los musulmanes de España entre dos fuegos: el yihadismo y la extrema derecha xenófoba". El Confidencial.
  16. ^ "El programa de Vox para "reconquistar" España". RTVE. 3 December 2018.
  17. ^ Remírez de Ganuza, Carmen (17 January 2014). "Nace Vox pidiendo la eliminación de los parlamentos regionales". El Mundo.
  18. ^ "Espagne. Abascal, la voix de l'extrême-droite anticatalane". Ouest-France. 30-3-2018. Check date values in: |date= (help).
  19. ^ Luppicini & Baarda 2017, p. 208: "He continued the jibing, announcing that several members of 'Popular Party' will be integrated back into political life through the new right wing Christian 'Popular Party', a breakaway party 'VOX' ('Voice') and the anti-separatist UPyD"
  20. ^ "WELCOME TO VOX Spain". The Leader. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
    Stokes, Bradley (25 July 2018). "Spain's new PP leader seeks to move the party 'back to its roots'". The Olive Press. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ de Prada, Juan Manuel de Prada (13 October 2018). "Voxeando". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  24. ^ Loucaides, Darren (2 July 2018). "Will Bannonism Play in Spain?". Slate.
  25. ^ González-Enríquez, Carmen (14 February 2017). "The Spanish Exception: Unemployment, inequality and immigration, but no right-wing populist parties" (PDF). elcano Royal Institute: 31, 34–34 – via elcano. The extreme right was disconcerted by transition to democracy and unable to react: soon it was divided into several groups, each of them claiming to be the true heirs of Falange Española, losing a common leadership. They gradually lost the voters they had gathered in 1979, who fled towards the Alianza Popular or abstention, and they have not gained near 1 per cent of the vote in parliamentary elections since. During the two last decades they have not even reached 0.5 per cent in those elections. Their most salient success was the 2 per cent of all votes obtained in the 2014 European elections by a new party, Vox, led by a former Partido Popular leader, who almost managed to obtain a seat. But this same party won less than 0.3 per cent in the 2015 and 2016 parliamentary elections (figure 20).
    Regué, Júlia (19 August 2018). "Radiografía de la extrema derecha en Catalunya". El Periódico (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 September 2018.
    Barriaux, Marianne; Villalobos, Alvaro (15 October 2017). "Spain's far-right gains visibility in Catalonia crisis". The Local. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  26. ^ Precedo, José (17 December 2017). "Vox: la ultraderecha irrelevante en las urnas agita los juzgados". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
    Minder, Raphael (27 March 2018). "Arrest of Catalan Leader Tests Spain, Separatists and E.U." The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  27. ^ a b "La afiliación al partido ultraderechista VOX aumenta un 20% en 40 días". Público (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Spain: No country for old fascists". Politico Europe. 26 December 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
    "Spain proves sterile ground for far-right parties". Deutsche Welle. 31 May 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  29. ^ "Política de privacidad de VOX España". voxespana.es/aviso-legal (in Spanish). Aviso Legal. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
  30. ^ Quintero, L.F.; Alonsof, Mariano (14 January 2014). "Nace Vox, el partido político de Santiago Abascal y Ortega Lara". Libertad Digital. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  31. ^ a b O'Leary, Elisabeth (16 January 2014). "Spanish ruling party rebels launch new conservative party". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  32. ^ Fernández, Guillermo (10 October 2018). "Vox abre la puerta". ctxt.es. Vistalegre dibuja a Vox como la expresión de que una parte de la derecha “neocon” española se ha desgajado de la nave nodriza del Partido Popular
  33. ^ Hennig, Anja; Meyer-Resende, Madalena (2016). Bedingungen der Aktivierung von moralpolitischen Konflikten. In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner y Oliver Hidalgo (Eds.). Springer. pp. 304–305. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-11793-1. ISBN 978-3-658-11792-4.
  34. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (1 April 2019). "Catalunya i 'la España viva' de Vox". Política&Prosa (5).
  35. ^ "Vox elige a Vidal-Quadras como su primer presidente". Crónica Global. 8 March 2014.
  36. ^ "Las caras y los apoyos de Vox". El Periódico. 1 November 2018.
  37. ^ Jannessari, Sohail; Loucaides, Darren (27 April 2019). "Spain's Vox Party Hates Muslims—Except the Ones Who Fund It". Foreign Policy.
  38. ^ "Tristeza y decepción en Vox tras los resultados de las Elecciones Europeas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 26 May 2014.
  39. ^ Paradinas, Marcos (3 November 2017). "VOX: "El 21D es fruto de un pacto oculto entre Rajoy y los golpistas"". elplural.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  40. ^ García, Jesús (11 October 2017). "El TSJ catalán admite la querella de Vox por rebelión contra Puigdemont". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  41. ^ "Los ex 'populares' Juan Antonio Morales y Antonio Pozo se incorporan a Vox". Región Digital (in Spanish). 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Spain far-right Vox party gains foothold in Andalusia election". BBC News. 3 December 2018.
  43. ^ "¿Quién es Francisco José Alcaraz, el primer senador de Vox?". 20 Minutos (in Spanish). 19 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  44. ^ Vox enters Congress for the first time but falls short of expectations in elpais.com
  45. ^ Casals, Xavier (21 April 2015). "Vox y su campaña contra la inmigración masiva". ElManifiesto.com.
  46. ^ Balcarce, Luis (17 April 2019). "PERIODISTA DIGITAL ENTREVISTA AL CAMERUNÉS DEL PARTIDO DE SANTIAGO ABASCAL". periodistadigital.com. Bertrand Ndongo (Vox): "España no debería permitir la invasión de los musulmanes"
  47. ^ Sosa, Carlos (17 April 2018). "Abascal (Vox): "No es lo mismo un inmigrante hispanoamericano que la inmigración de los países islámicos"". eldiario.es. Santiago Abascal alertó a los presentes acerca de “ese 4% de musulmanes que hay en España y que, para algunos, puede resultar una minoría simpática”. Su advertencia fue muy concreta: “No queremos que se conviertan en un problema”.
  48. ^ Zamora, La Opinión de. "Vox apela a "la inmigración buena" para atajar la despoblación en Zamora". www.laopiniondezamora.es.
  49. ^ Abascal, Santiago (8 November 2015). "Cádiz, Covadonga y Bruselas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 July 2018. Porque estamos convencidos de que nación y soberanía son conceptos íntimamente relacionados. Si somos soberanos es porque somos una Nación y no tenemos derecho a entregar lo que hemos recibido de nuestros mayores. España debe estar en Europa pero sin complejos, reivindicando el papel histórico, industrial y agrícola que merecemos. No debemos ser vasallos de Merkel ni de Tsipras. Ni camareros de Merkel ni paganos de las propinas de Tsipras. Las Cortes de Cádiz proclamaron que la Nación española era libre e independiente y que no podía ser patrimonio de ninguna familia o persona. Proclamaron asimismo que la soberanía reside esencialmente en la Nación, que es la única que tiene derecho a establecer sus leyes fundamentales. Esta declaración de soberanía ha sido una constante en toda nuestra historia constitucional.
  50. ^ Cañizares, María Jesús (17 December 2018). "Vox: ¿fenómeno mediático o real?". Crónica Global.
  51. ^ Spain's Vox party wins seats as far-right party surges for first time since Franco, CNN, December 3, 2018
  52. ^ Jones, Sam (9 December 2018). "Far right victories in Andalucía send shockwave through Spanish politics". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  53. ^ Álvarez, Pilar; Valdés, Isabel (3 December 2018). "Derogar la ley de violencia de género y otros planes de Vox contra el feminismo". El Pais. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  54. ^ a b Arroyo, Jorge Rodriguez (3 December 2018). "Far-right Spanish political party Vox: What are its policies?". El Pais.
  55. ^ "As Spain elects its first far-right MPs since Franco, the party's leader invokes the Inquisition years". The Jewish Chronicle. 2 May 2019.
  56. ^ "Spain's far-right makes election gains using anti-Muslim sentiment". The National (Abu Dhabi). 29 April 2019.
  57. ^ Bryan, Kenza (9 December 2018). "Spain's far right eyes role as kingmaker in April elections". The Times.
  58. ^ Segovia Vara, Marina; Fernández Pasalodos, Arnau (18 April 2019). "Ha vuelto la Antiespaña. Vox y su violencia discursiva". El Salto.
  59. ^ Lenore, Víctor (24 April 2019). "Morante, Calamaro y Abascal: ¿son los toros el nuevo rock and roll?". Voz Pópuli.
  60. ^ Fernández Vázquez, Guillermo (24 April 2019). "Vox, la extrema derecha de siempre". CTXT. A tenor de lo que muestra el programa, cultura es para Vox lengua y tradición, siguiendo el viejo lema de los partidos nacionalistas.
  61. ^ Baer, Alejandro (2 May 2019). "The Rise of Spain's Pro-Israel, Far-Right Party". Tablet Mag.
  62. ^ Maestre, Antonio (2 May 2015), "Un histórico ultra condenado a prisión por el asalto a Blanquerna, en Vox", La Sexta
  63. ^ "El pasado nazi de un candidato de Vox en Alcalá de Henares". ABC. 7 May 2015.

Bibliography

External links