Vox (political party)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

PresidentSantiago Abascal
Secretary-GeneralIgnacio Garriga
Vice presidentsJorge Buxadé
Javier Ortega Smith
Reyes Romero
Spokesman in CongressIván Espinosa de los Monteros
Founded17 December 2013
Split fromPeople's Party
HeadquartersC / Bambú 12 28036 Madrid
Membership (2021)Increase 63,468[1]
Political positionFar-right[A][19]
ReligionRoman Catholicism
European affiliationEuropean Conservatives and Reformists Party
European Parliament groupEuropean Conservatives and Reformists[20]
Colours  Green
Congress of Deputies
52 / 350
3 / 265
European Parliament
4 / 59
Regional parliaments
114 / 1,268
Mayors in Spain
5 / 8,122
Town councillors
1,695 / 67,121
Party flag
Flag of VOX.svg
www.voxespana.es Edit this at Wikidata

^ A: Vox is considered part of the radical right, a subset of the far-right that does not oppose democracy.[18][21][22][23]

Vox[a] (often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈboks]) is a national-conservative political party in Spain. Founded in 2013, it is currently led by party president Santiago Abascal, vice presidents Jorge Buxadé, Javier Ortega Smith, Reyes Romero, assisted by secretary general Ignacio Garriga.[24] Vox identifies itself as right-wing, though has been described as far-right by academics and journalists.[19]

The party entered the Spanish parliament for the first time after winning seats in the April 2019 general election. Later that year, it received 3.6 million votes in the November 2019 general election, winning 52 seats and becoming the third-largest party in the Congress of Deputies. Its public support is on the rise, according to the results of subsequent regional elections, and opinion polls.[which?]



Javier Ortega Smith giving a speech in 2018

Vox was founded on 17 December 2013, and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014, as a split from the People's Party (PP).[25][26][27] This schism was interpreted as an offshoot of "neoconservative"[28] or "social conservative"[29] PP party members.[b] The party platform called for a rewrite of the constitution so as to curb regional autonomy and abolish regional parliaments.[27] Several founding members of the party (for example, Alejo Vidal-Quadras, José Antonio Ortega Lara, and Santiago Abascal) had been members of the platform "reconversion.es",[c] which had issued a manifesto in 2012 calling for a recentralization of the State.[31] Vidal-Quadras was proclaimed as the first chairman in March 2014.[32][d]

Their initial funding, totalling nearly 972,000 euros, came in the form of individual donations from supporters of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) and of People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK), thanks to their "personal relationship" with Vidal-Quadras, who had supported the NCRI during his stint in the EU Parliament. There is no evidence that Vox has broken Spanish or EU funding rules accepting these donations.[31][34]

The 2014 European elections marked the first time the newly formed Vox fielded a candidate, with Vidal-Quadras running under its banner, though he narrowly failed to retain his seat in the European Parliament.[35]

In September 2014, the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as its President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.

The party participated in the 2015 and the 2016 elections, but did not do well, scoring 0.23% and 0.20% of votes respectively.

Amidst the Spanish constitutional crisis precipitated by the Catalan referendum, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017.[36] After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians.[37] Its membership grew by 20% in the span of forty days immediately following this action.[38]

Entrance into institutions[edit]

On 10 September 2018, Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member.[39] On 2 December 2018, they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election,[40] [41] entering a regional parliament for the first time. It supported the coalition regional government by Ciudadanos and the Popular Party. With this result, Vox was also given a first seat in the Senate, which was taken by Francisco José Alcaraz.[42]

The party obtained 10.26% of votes in the April 2019 general election, electing 24 Deputies and entering the Congress of Deputies for the first time.[43] Later, the party entered the European Parliament for the first time with 6.2% of the votes and three Eurodeputies, which after Brexit became four. After this election, the party joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe.[20] In the second general election of the year in November, Vox came third and increased its number of deputies from 24 to 52.[44] It was the most-voted party in the Region of Murcia and the autonomous city of Ceuta.[45]

At the beginning of 2020, during the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic, Vox called for travel restrictions between China and Spain, and later between Italy and Spain, to safeguard against the "Chinese virus".[46] At that time the epidemic was already in full swing in those countries, but it was prior to any COVID cases being officially confirmed within Spain in significant numbers. That position found no support among other parties, and it was criticized as xenophobic rhetoric.[47][48] The party claims that serious counter-COVID measures were deliberately delayed in Spain by the government, which hid the information and downplayed known risks to allow for mass public events on International Women's Day (8 March) to take place, as these events were important for the left wing agenda of the newly formed coalition government of PSOE and UP.[49] At the same time, Vox went forward with their own global party conference on 8 March in Vistalegre, where party supporters from all parts of Spain were invited. The conference resulted in numerous cases of COVID infection, including confirmed cases of COVID transmission between members of Vox leadership.[50][51] This fact was often brought up by Vox opponents to criticize Vox attitude towards COVID situation in Spain.[52]

During the anti-COVID lockdown and follow-up restrictions, Vox routinely criticized government measures as inefficient, partisan, and partially unconstitutional.[53] In April 2020 the party appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain against the first State of Alarm (15 March – 21 June) declared by the government.[54] In October 2020, Vox's parliamentary group at the Congress of Deputies tabled a motion of no confidence against the current Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez, bringing Santiago Abascal as alternative candidate.[55] The motion failed to gain any support among the other parliamentary groups, gathering 52 'yes' votes (those of Vox legislators) and 298 'no' votes (the rest of the chamber).[56] In November 2020 Vox appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain against the second State of Alarm (October 25, 2020 – May 9, 2021) declared by the government.[57]

In the face of the 2020 United States presidential election, Vox was fully supportive of President Donald Trump's candidacy,[58] even tweeting from its official account that Joe Biden was the preferred candidate of "El País, Podemos, Otegi, Maduro, China, Iran and pedophiles", which according to the international news agency EFE was echoing QAnon conspiracy theories.[59] Vox took part in the 2021 CPAC conference and refused to acknowledge Biden's victory.[60]

Santiago Abascal during a rally in 2021

At the beginning of 2021, Vox's abstention was instrumental in securing European COVID-recovery funds on socialist terms,[61] criticized by independent experts for allowing the government inefficient partisan spending without any effective independent control.[citation needed] Many Vox supporters considered this as the "largest error in Vox's history",[62] leading to party leaders admitting it as a mistake and apologizing.[citation needed]

During 2020 and 2021 electoral campaigns for regional elections in the Basque Country,[63] Catalonia,[64] and the Community of Madrid[65] multiple legal electoral events of Vox were physically attacked by radical political opponents on the premises of "Vox's legitimate electoral events in some regions being provocative acts". The view of the events as provocations was endorsed by high ranking UP members, including their speaker Pablo Echenique, and their leader, the Second Deputy Prime Minister of Spain at the time, Pablo Iglesias.[66]

On 14 July 2021, in response to the Vox's appeal the previous year, the Constitutional Court of Spain declared by a narrow majority (6 votes in support vs. 5 votes against) that the first anti-COVID State of Alarm was unconstitutional in the part of suppressing the freedom of movement established by the Article 19 of the Constitution.[67] In October 2021 the Constitutional Court of Spain supported two other appeals by Vox, and declared unconstitutional the closing down of Spanish Parliament and Senate in the beginning of pandemic, and the second State of Alarm.[68][69] As reported on 22 October 2021, the Government of Spain ordered all fines collected in relation to the first State of Alarm to be returned to citizens.[70]

On 13 February 2022 Vox came third in the 2022 Castilian-Leonese regional election, raising its representation from 1 up to 13 seats, and becoming the key player for the rival People's Party (PP), who won the elections, to form a government.[71][72] Following this election result, and an unfolding leadership crisis in PP,[73] Vox for the first time was recognized as the Spain's second political force, according to some opinion polls for the next general elections.[74] In March 2022, it was announced that Vox would form government with the PP in Castile and León, taking three of ten ministerial positions including vice president for regional leader Juan García-Gallardo.[75] Vox member Carlos Pollán was elected President of the Cortes of Castile and León, the position of speaker.[76] This represents the first participation of Vox in any regional government.

On 19 June 2022 Vox came third in the 2022 Andalusian regional elections. With Macarena Olona as the leading candidate, the party improved over the previous regional elections, gaining about 100k more votes, and two more seats in the Parliament of Andalusia, but failed short of the expectations to achieve significantly better results and become the key to the new regional government.[77] In the aftermath of elections, despite initial promises to stay and lead Vox's opposition group in Andalusia, on 29 July 2022 Olona announced her decision to resign and left politics due to unnamed "medical reasons".[78][79]

In March 2023 Vox, for the second time, tabled a motion of no confidence against the government of Pedro Sánchez, with Ramón Tamames as alternative, independent candidate. The motion failed with 53 votes in favour, 201 votes against, 91 abstentions, and 4 absentees.[80]

In 2023 regional and local elections Vox notably strengthened its positions in most territories, became the potential key player for governing of the winning PP in many places, and according to the Vox leaders and independent political commenters ended a clear second beneficiary of the elections after PP.


The party identifies itself as a more right-wing alternative to the centre-right People's Party, from which it split in 2013. In November 2018, during a party event in Murcia, the party leader Santiago Abascal defined his party as "antifascist, anti-Nazi and anticommunist".[81] El Español simply described Vox as right-wing,[82] though journalists and academics routinely describe the party as being far-right.[83][84][85][86][21] Adding to the confusion is the exact understanding of the "far-right" term by different sources. While some of scholars cited below, who qualify Vox as a far-right or radical right party, make a clear fundamental distinction between "far-right", "radical right", and "extreme right", other sources and laymen often treat these terms as equivalent. As a young party, Vox somewhat lacks a well-elaborated ideology basis, and might still be considered as "a party under construction", subject to day-to-day ideology adjustments, further complicating its analysis.[87]

According to the book by Rama, Zanotti, Turnbull-Dugarte, and Santana, Vox is a populist radical right party, in contrast to an extreme right. They consider the party to be ideologically radical, but not extreme, since discursively it does not go against the central tenets of democracy. They write that "however, belonging to the populist radical right family means that the party communicates and advocates for policies that are somewhat at odds with some of the core principles of liberal democracy such as the rule of law, individual liberties or the rights of minorities." According to their analysis, the positions that are central to Vox's ideology are: (i) a strong anti-immigration stance, and advocacy for stricter law and order policies; (ii) a strong defence of the unity of Spain against all who allegedly want to break or undermine it; (iii) an opposition to what it labels as the "progressive dictatorship", and strong defence of the Catholic religion and traditional moral values.[88]

Carles Ferreira, in his analysis, comes to the conclusion that Vox is a far-right organization, as it fits the characteristics of the radical right party family. He sums up: "Vox's ideology is based on a combination of nationalism and xenophobia (nativism) and an authoritarian view of society, attached to the values of law and order. This authoritarianism, however, represents neither the willingness to establish an autocratic regime nor the use of violence to reach political goals." According to Ferreira, nationalism, nativism, authoritarianism, and traditionalism are central to Vox's ideology; neoliberalism is present but not central; populism is indicated, but not explicit; and there are no antidemocratic views in the party's ideology.[22]

According to Xavier Casals, the unifying part of Vox's ideology up to this point[until when?] is a warlike ultranationalism, that is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called España Viva, but also with a Catholic-inspired culture.[17] He says that ideological roots of the party's ultranationalism lie in the incondicionalismo, 'unconditionalism', the nationalist discourse based on the "fear of amputation of the homeland" coined in the 19th century in Colonial Cuba against Cuban separatism and also autonomist concessions (replicated in Catalonia in the 1910s).[89] Casals writes that their specific brand of Spanish nationalism is linked to the unconditional support to the State Security Forces and Corps,[90] and the party's discourse has also revived the myth of the Antiespaña ("Anti-Spain"), an umbrella term created in the 1930s by the domestic ultranationalist forces to designate the (inner) "Enemies of Spain",[5][91] creating a simplistic España viva/Antiespaña duality that comes handy for the communication in brief messages characteristic of social media.[90] Casals notes regarding the external projection of their discourse that the party has reanimated the concept of "Hispanidad"; party leader Abascal has stated that an immigrant coming from a "brotherly Hispanic-American country" is not comparable to the immigration coming from "Islamic countries".[92]

According to Guillermo Fernández Vázquez, Vox's positions, which he described as "economically anti-statist and neoliberal" as well as "morally authoritarian", is similar to positions held by Jörg Haider's FPÖ or Jean Marie Le Pen's National Front from the 1980s, thus likening the emergence of the party to an archaic stage of current radical right parties, more worried about the need to modernize their image than Vox; the latter's approach to cultural issues would be in line with old school Spanish nationalist parties, restricting the scope of "culture" to "language and tradition".[93][94]

Vox supports the State of Israel within the context of Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[95] On the other hand, the party has appealed to conspiracy theories invoking the figure of George Soros as a mastermind behind Catalan separatism and the alleged "Islamization" of Europe.[96] Support of anti-Soros conspiracy theories is widely considered as a sign of antisemitism,[97] though leading figures of Vox never brought up the roots of Soros in their anti-Soros discourse.[citation needed] Vox used to include some former neo-Nazis in party cadres and lists;[98][99] VOX has since expelled some of them from the party, while others have resigned.[100][101]

Internal politics[edit]

Vox supports the constitutional monarchy,[102] advocates for the recentralization of Spain by abolishing Spain's autonomous communities,[11][103] and strongly opposes separatist movements in the country, in particular the Catalan independence movement and Basque nationalism. Fighting the latter one is also a personal question for multiple founding members, including the current president Santiago Abascal, whose family was threatened by the terrorist group ETA during his youth in the Basque country;[104] José Antonio Ortega Lara, who was kidnapped by ETA and kept hostage for 532 days; and María Teresa López Álvarez, whose father survived an assassination attempt by ETA.[105][106] Vox promotes the illegalization of separatist parties in Spain,[107] e.g. EH Bildu, ERC, etc., and opposed the pardoning of Catalan independence activists convicted for organizing an independence referendum. The party's centralist discourse incorporates economic arguments, claiming that current structure of autonomous and local governments in Spain are responsible for significant superfluous budget spending.

Vox publicly criticised and opposed the exhumation of Francisco Franco.[108]

Vox calls for Spain to regain sovereignty over Gibraltar,[109] and extra efforts for safeguarding Spanish control of Ceuta and Melilla.[110]

Social issues[edit]

Vox is considered anti-feminist by some,[111] and wants to repeal the gender violence law,[112] which they see as "discriminatory against one of the sexes", and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse".[113] Left-leaning critics believe Vox undermines the importance of feminist struggle in the advance of liberties of women by means of linking the latter to a culture with "Christian foundations".[114]

Vox is opposed to abortion rights.[115][116] The party advocates for life sentences for sex offenders and abusers.[117][118]

Vox opposes the legalization of euthanasia.[116] The party supports bullfighting, which it considers an important element of Spanish culture that should be defended.[119]


While Vox's official platform only contains proposals against Islamic fundamentalism, public statements made by party figures constitute Islamophobia, helping to underpin, according to Casals, their discourse against Maghrebi immigration, and in favour of the development of a closer bond to Catholicism.[114] The party advocates for the closure of fundamentalist mosques as well as the arrest and expulsion of extremist imams.[113] Vox has openly called for the deportation of tens of thousands of Muslims from Spain.[120] In 2019, the party's leader demanded a Reconquista, 'reconquest' of Spain,[121] explicitly referencing a new round of expulsions of Muslim immigrants from the country.[122]

LGBT rights[edit]

Vox opposes same-sex marriage[123] while supporting same-sex civil unions.[124] The party has been accused of homophobia[125][126] which the party denies.[123][127][128] Party leader Santiago Abascal has denied allegations of homophobia, stating in an interview that Vox is in no way a homophobic party and that it merely opposes "LGBT ideology", going on to say that party membership includes many homosexuals, and that he personally has friends who are gay.[127][128] José María Marco, Spanish essayist, liberal-conservative opinion journalist, and an open gay conservative, contested the April 2019 Senate election in Madrid as the candidate from Vox, and also ran second in the party list for the 2019 Madrilenian regional election.[123][129]

In some discourses, party leaders have suggested that their opposition to mass immigration from Islamic countries effectively protects the LGBT community, as homosexuality is largely prosecuted in Islamic cultures, and that most immigrants do not alter their attitude upon arrival to Spain.[130][128]

Vox opposes Ley Trans, developed by Irene Montero and the Ministry of Equality, and approved by Spanish government in June 2021.[128][131] According to Vox, the law as proposed "attacks the rights of women, children, biology, and common sense".[132]

Vox congratulated the Hungarian parliament for passing legislation[133] that would ban media and educational content which may be seen by underage persons from depicting LGBT individuals or addressing LGBT issues.[134]

Multiple Vox politicians have made allegedly disparaging statements about homosexuals.[126][128] Thus, Fernando Paz Cristóbal [ca] (ex-leader of Vox in Albacete, who left the party in 2019) told in 2013: "If I had a gay son I would help him, there are therapies to correct such psychology".[126][135] Francisco Serrano Castro (ex-leader of Vox in Andalusia, who left the party in 2020) tweeted in 2017: "Homosexuals have penises and lesbians have vulvas, and don't be fooled, nobody cares about it".[126] Juan E. Pflüger (director of communications of Vox in 2019) tweeted in 2013: "Why do gays celebrate Saint Valentine day, if their thing is not love, it's just vice".[126]


Vox has proposed that citizens should be allowed to keep arms at home, and supports the castle doctrine,[127][136] but does not support the right to carry arms or the free sale of firearms.[136] Current party leaders, Santiago Abascal and Javier Ortega, are both licensed to carry handguns for self-defence due to recurrent threats to their lives for their political activities.[137][138] Under strict Spanish gun laws, such licenses are rarely granted to civilians, only when authorities consider proven a real high risk of an individual being attacked (about 0.02% of the Spanish population holds such licenses).[139]


Vox's economic position is often described as economically liberal[140][141] or neo-liberal.[142] The party defends liberalization of Spanish labour laws, lower taxation, and support for self-employed workers.[113] Some public declarations of party members demonstrate understanding of emerging trends in modern economy; thus, Ivan Espinosa compared to dinosaurs many politicians who approach modern tax affairs the conservative way, willing to subdue to high taxation easily dislocatable cutting edge businesses.[143] At the same time, Vox's discourse includes protectionist ideas for national companies, and criticism of globalization, and large multinational corporations, which can be viewed as anti-liberal.[144][145]

The party's economic rhetoric includes elements aimed to attract the working class electorate, traditionally supportive of left-oriented parties, like PSOE. In 2020, Vox declared the launch of its own workers union named Solidaridad[146] (Solidarity, the name reminiscent of numerous historic organizations in Spain, e.g. Solidaridad Española; and other countries, e.g. Polish Solidarity, UK Solidarity, etc.). According to some declarations, the union is just endorsed, but independent from Vox party.[citation needed]

Vox's discourse includes calls to cut inefficient and superfluous government spending.[113] In particular, the costs associated with the administration of autonomous communities and local governments (which also should be downscaled according to the views of the party on internal politics), and "ideological chiringuitos", the party's label for various organizations, recipients of public funds, considered by Vox as just promotors of government agenda.[citation needed]


According to the party's platform, and numerous interviews of its leaders, Vox positions itself strongly against illegal immigration, which is a significant contributor to crime in Spain (in 2019, according to INE data,[147] 25% of convicts in Spain were foreign nationals, 16% of convicts were non-European nationals; there is no official statistics on immigration status of foreign convicts). Vox calls for unconditional deportation of illegal immigrants; tightening of Spanish immigration laws; legal and police actions against non-profits (e.g. Proactiva Open Arms) and organized crime facilitating illegal immigration; and the militarization of problematic frontiers. The party emphasizes its support for legal immigration complied with the Spanish law. At the same time, they promote stricter regulation of immigration according to the needs of national economy; with preference for immigration from Hispanic cultures, on the premises of easier integration of such immigrants into Spanish society, compared to immigrants from Islamic countries.[148][149][150][110][151]

During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Vox supported the accommodation of Ukrainian refugees in Europe. According to Abascal "these are real war refugees, women, children, and elderly people", unlike "young Muslim males of military age invading Europe frontiers with intentions to destabilize and colonize it".[152]

Opponents of Vox describe and criticize the party's position as xenophobic, anti-immigrant and Islamophobic. With especially strong criticism of Vox's harsh position against vulnerable immigrant groups, such as unaccompanied minors, refugees or victims of crime in their country of origin.[153][154]

The party is critical of multiculturalism[155][156][151] and demographic transition,[157][158][159] supporting natalist politics and opposing replacement migration.[158][159]

There are persons of non-European descent among Vox members and supporters. Notable figures of African descent associated with the party include Ignacio Garriga and Bertrand Ndongo.[160]


The party's discourse about the environment has evolved over time, going from climate change denial to a conservationist approach.[161] However, the party still opposes the mainstream environmental views, labelling them as "Green religion", and as recent as April 2021 voted against the Law for Climate Change and Energy Transition, which was adopted anyway.[162]


Vox promotes the "pin parental" policy: changes in laws aimed to guarantee the rights of parents to control public education of their children, and veto their children from obligatory attendance to classes contradicting values of parents.[163] Party representatives claim that Spanish national and regional authorities abuse the control of the public education system to impose their political and ideological agenda on children.[163]

Foreign policy and international relations[edit]


Since its formation, Vox was close to Matteo Salvini's Lega Nord party in Italy. In March 2021, Salvini said there were no longer any links between the two parties, with Vox growing closer to Giorgia Meloni's Brothers of Italy party instead.[164] A member of the European Conservatives and Reformists, Vox shares group with parties such as Polish Law and Justice, Brothers of Italy, Dutch JA21 or the Sweden Democrats.[165]

Vox holds a Eurosceptic view of the European Union, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because according to the Constitution of Spain national sovereignty is vested in the Spanish people, from whom emanate the powers of the State. The party's leadership is strongly opposed to the EU becoming a federal superstate and instead argues for a Europe of "strong and sovereign states" that "defends its borders and its Christian roots and opposes multiculturalism and mass immigration."[166][167][168] Political science professor Andrés Santana and Lisa Zanotti noted that out of all the parties in Spain, Vox's voters and grassroots activists were the most likely to oppose Spain's membership of the EU.[169]

In July 2021, party leader Abascal signed a statement about Europe's future that opposed the EU's "federalist drift" with Viktor Orbán (Prime Minister of Hungary and president of Fidesz), Marine Le Pen (President of the National Rally), Jarosław Kaczyński (leader of PiS and ex-Prime Minister of Poland), Giorgia Meloni, among others.[170]

Following the beginning of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine Vox took a strong pro-Ukrainian stance, announcing its support to "all measures" to defend Ukraine, including shipments of armaments to Ukraine.[171]


Vox was supportive of Donald Trump and his political ideals during his presidency[58][60] and met with his government in February 2019 to present the Madrid Charter; the document divided political groups in the Americas into the two sides of Western democracies and "criminal" left-wing groups that were "under the umbrella of the Cuban regime".[172][173][174] The Madrid Charter called for scholars and the media to adopt and disseminate the ideas of the document.[175] In September 2021, 15 senators and three deputies from the National Action Party of Mexico met Abascal to sign the charter.[176] The charter was primarily signed by Venezuelan opposition members, Cuban dissidents and Fujimorists from Peru,[173][177][178] with El País writing that Vox gathered groups of Evangelicals, Catholics, neoconservatives, right-wing populists and individuals "nostalgic for military dictatorships" to sign the document.[172]

Voter profile[edit]

A 2020 study based on a statistical analysis of April 2019 general election results found that Vox's support is stronger among middle-aged, urban population with higher secondary education and at the higher end of income distribution. Authors say that such voter profile is in direct contrast with that of a typical supporter of radical right parties in other European states, expected to be a man from a rural area with low education and low income. Vox's support is stronger among electorate dissatisfied with the current political situation in Spain, and voters who identify themselves as Spaniards.[179]

A 2021 study of the influence of Spanish party leaders on Twitter during the April 2019 general election campaign[180] found that the messages tweeted during the electoral campaign by Santiago Abascal (Vox) reached the highest diffusion and viralization capacity compared to Twitter messages by leaders of Cs, PSOE, PP and UP. The main focus of Abascal's tweets, according to the authors, was Spanish territorial model (27.2%), government and parties (19.3%) and economy (14.5%).

Electoral performance[edit]

Cortes Generales[edit]

Cortes Generales
Election Leading candidate Congress Senate Government
Votes % Seats +/– Seats +/–
2015 Santiago Abascal 58,114 0.23 (#15)
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2016 47,182 0.20 (#13)
0 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
Apr. 2019 2,688,092 10.26 (#5)
24 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg24
0 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Snap election
Nov. 2019 3,656,979 15.08 (#3)
52 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg28
2 / 208
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 Opposition

European Parliament[edit]

European Parliament
Election Leading candidate Votes % Seats +/–
2014 Alejo Vidal-Quadras 246,833 1.57 (#11)
0 / 54
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2019 Jorge Buxadé 1,393,684 6.21 (#5)
4 / 59
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4

Regional parliaments[edit]

Region Election Votes % Seats +/– Government
Andalusia 2022 496,618 13.5 (#3)
14 / 109
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 Opposition
Aragon 2023 TBD 11.3 (#3)
7 / 67
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4 TBD
Asturias 2023 TBD 10.1 (#3)
4 / 45
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 TBD
Balearic Islands 2023 TBD 13.9 (#3)
8 / 59
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5 TBD
Basque Country 2020 17,569 1.9 (#6)
1 / 75
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Opposition
Canary Islands 2023 TBD 7.9 (#5)
4 / 70
Increase4 TBD
Cantabria 2023 TBD 11.1 (#4)
4 / 35
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 TBD
Castile and León 2022 212,605 17.6 (#3)
13 / 81
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg12 Coalition
Castilla–La Mancha 2023 TBD 12.8 (#3)
4 / 33
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4 TBD
Catalonia 2021 218,364 7.7 (#4)
11 / 135
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg11 Opposition
Ceuta 2023 TBD 20.6 (#3)
5 / 25
Red Arrow Down.svg1 TBD
Extremadura 2023 TBD 8.1 (#3)
5 / 65
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5 TBD
Galicia 2020 26,485 2.0 (#5)
0 / 75
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
La Rioja 2023 TBD 7.6 (#3)
2 / 33
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 TBD
Madrid 2023 TBD 7.3 (#4)
10 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg3 TBD
Melilla 2023 TBD 9.9 (#4)
2 / 25
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 TBD
Murcia 2023 TBD 17.7 (#3)
9 / 45
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5 TBD
Navarre 2023 TBD 4.3 (#7)
2 / 50
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 TBD
Valencian Community 2023 TBD 12.4 (#4)
13 / 99
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg13 TBD

Results timeline[edit]

Year Spain
European Union
Canary Islands
Castilla–La Mancha
Castile and León
Galicia (Spain)
Balearic Islands
Flag of La Rioja (with coat of arms).svg
Community of Madrid
Region of Murcia
Basque Country (autonomous community)
Valencian Community
2014 N/A 1.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
2015 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.8 0.4
2016 Red Arrow Down.svg 0.2 0.1
2018 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 11.0
2019 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 10.3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 6.2 6.1 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 6.4 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 2.5 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 5.1 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 7.0 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 5.5 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 22.4 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 4.7 8.1 3.9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 8.9 7.8 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 9.5 1.3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 10.6
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 15.1
2020 2.0 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 1.9
2021 7.7 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 9.1
2022 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 13.5 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 17.6
2023 TBD Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 11.3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 10.1 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 7.9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 11.1 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 12.8    Red Arrow Down.svg 20.6 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 8.1 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 13.9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 7.6 Red Arrow Down.svg 7.3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 9.9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 17.7 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 4.3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 12.4
Year Spain
European Union
Canary Islands
Castilla–La Mancha
Castile and León
Galicia (Spain)
Balearic Islands
Flag of La Rioja (with coat of arms).svg
Community of Madrid
Region of Murcia
Basque Country (autonomous community)
Valencian Community

Bold indicates best result to date.
  To be decided
  Present in legislature (in opposition)
  Junior coalition partner
  Senior coalition partner

Party membership[edit]

According to the party's annual reports.

Year Joined Left Num. of members at 31 December
2016 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg 3,496 [181]
2017 2,045 569 Increase 4,792 [181]
2018 20,153 1,102 Increase 23,843 [182]
2019 29,927 1,363 Increase 52,407 [182]
2020 17,253 7,286 Increase 62,374 [183]
2021 11,118 10,024 Increase 63,468 [1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Latin: vox, lit.'voice'
  2. ^ Pablo Carmona suggests Vox can be indeed adequately interpreted as a sort of evolution of the People's Party from the last years of the leadership of José María Aznar.[30]
  3. ^ Spanish: reconversión, lit.'reconversion; restructuring'
  4. ^ Vidal Quadras later left the party after the political failure at the European election and his inability to impose his stances in the party. He would argue in 2018 that the party shifted from a "liberal conservative, Europeanist, and reformist" proposal (represented by himself), to a "Nationalist, revisionist, eurosceptic and confessional" one.[33]


  1. ^ a b "Partido politico Vox. Cuentas anuales del ejercicio 2021, junto con el informe de auditoria" (PDF). Vox España.
  2. ^ "Spanish election: victory for Socialists as VOX surge fragments right-wing vote". Yahoo News. 29 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Factbox: The rise of Spain's far-right - Vox becomes third-biggest party". Reuters. 10 November 2019.
  4. ^ "Far-right claims first victories in Spain since Franco era". Axios. 5 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  6. ^ "En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX". panampost.com (in Spanish). 6 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". letraslibres.com (in Spanish). su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
  8. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Spain". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  9. ^ Caparros, Martin (2019). "Vox and the Rise of the Extreme Right in Spain". New York Times.
  10. ^ Lebourg & Camus 2020, p. 275: "A la cuestión táctica se agrega un problema de concepción de la nación que muestra lo difícil que resulta unir al total de los nacionalistas, porque, así como Marine Le Pen intentó seducir a los diputados de VOX, estos, que son partidarios del centralismo nacional, prefirieron la coherencia ideológica cuando decidieron no adherirse a un grupo que incluye a los Vlaams Belang"
  11. ^ a b "El programa de Vox para "reconquistar" España". RTVE (in Spanish). 3 December 2018.
  12. ^ Remírez de Ganuza, Carmen (17 January 2014). "Nace Vox pidiendo la eliminación de los parlamentos regionales". El Mundo.
  13. ^ Rama, José; J. Turnbull-Dugarte, Stuart; Santana, Andrés (30 July 2020). "Who are Vox, and who are their voters?". The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  14. ^ Guy Hedgecoe (11 November 2019). "Spanish elections: How the far-right Vox party found its footing". BBC News.
  15. ^ Castelli, Francesco (9 December 2019). "EU-related discussions in 2019 Spanish general elections: a Twitter study". euvisions.eu. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2021. Vox holds positions of soft euroscepticism, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, and its presence on the national stage pushed expectations towards an increased politicization of the debate around the European Union
  16. ^ Fredrik Engelstad; Trygve Gulbrandsen (7 October 2019). Elites and People: Challenges to Democracy. Comparative Social Research. p. 199. ISBN 978-1838679156.
  17. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (19 January 2019). "Vox habla sobre Vox. Tres libros para conocer el partido". Agenda Pública. Su ideario parece hallarse aún en construcción y tiene como eje vertebrador un ultranacionalismo bélico asociado a la "Reconquista" o a una "Covadonga 2.0", El partido lo identifica con una visión biológica y palingenética de la patria, la "España viva", pero también con una cultura de inspiración católica.
  18. ^ a b Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^ a b Press, Europa (13 June 2019). "Vox compartirá grupo en la Eurocámara con el partido que apoyó a Puigdemont". elperiodico.
  21. ^ a b Turnbull-Dugarte 2019.
  22. ^ a b Ferreira 2019.
  23. ^ Mendes, Mariana S.; Dennison, James (19 June 2020). "Explaining the emergence of the radical right in Spain and Portugal: salience, stigma and supply". West European Politics. 44 (4): 752–775. doi:10.1080/01402382.2020.1777504. S2CID 225650718.
  24. ^ "Comité Ejecutivo Nacional". Vox España. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Política de privacidad de VOX España". voxespana.es/aviso-legal (in Spanish). Aviso Legal. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
  26. ^ Quintero, L.F.; Alonsof, Mariano (14 January 2014). "Nace Vox, el partido político de Santiago Abascal y Ortega Lara". Libertad Digital. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  27. ^ a b O'Leary, Elisabeth (16 January 2014). "Spanish ruling party rebels launch new conservative party". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  28. ^ Fernández, Guillermo (10 October 2018). "Vox abre la puerta". ctxt.es. Vistalegre dibuja a Vox como la expresión de que una parte de la derecha "neocon" española se ha desgajado de la nave nodriza del Partido Popular
  29. ^ Hennig, Anja; Meyer-Resende, Madalena (2016). Bedingungen der Aktivierung von moralpolitischen Konflikten. In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner y Oliver Hidalgo (Eds.). Springer. pp. 304–305. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-11793-1. ISBN 978-3-658-11792-4.
  30. ^ Carmona Pascual 2020, p. 161.
  31. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (1 April 2019). "Catalunya i 'la España viva' de Vox". Política & Prosa (5).
  32. ^ "Vox elige a Vidal-Quadras como su primer presidente". Crónica Global. 8 March 2014.
  33. ^ "Las caras y los apoyos de Vox". El Periódico. 1 November 2018.
  34. ^ Jannessari, Sohail; Loucaides, Darren (27 April 2019). "Spain's Vox Party Hates Muslims—Except the Ones Who Fund It". Foreign Policy.
  35. ^ "Tristeza y decepción en Vox tras los resultados de las Elecciones Europeas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 26 May 2014.
  36. ^ Paradinas, Marcos (3 November 2017). "VOX: "El 21D es fruto de un pacto oculto entre Rajoy y los golpistas"". elplural.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  37. ^ García, Jesús (11 October 2017). "El TSJ catalán admite la querella de Vox por rebelión contra Puigdemont". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  38. ^ "La afiliación al partido ultraderechista VOX aumenta un 20% en 40 días". Público (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  39. ^ "Los ex 'populares' Juan Antonio Morales y Antonio Pozo se incorporan a Vox". Región Digital (in Spanish). 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  40. ^ Turnbull-Dugarte 2019, pp. 1–2.
  41. ^ "Spain far-right Vox party gains foothold in Andalusia election". BBC News. 3 December 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018.
  42. ^ "¿Quién es Francisco José Alcaraz, el primer senador de Vox?". 20 Minutos (in Spanish). 19 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  43. ^ Vox enters Congress for the first time but falls short of expectations in elpais.com
  44. ^ Jones, Sam (11 November 2019). "Spain election: grand coalition ruled out as far-right Vox surges". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  45. ^ "Vox gana las elecciones en Murcia y Ceuta". El Plural (in Spanish). 10 November 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  46. ^ Ortega, Esther (24 February 2020). "Vox pide que los extranjeros que hayan visitado China no entren en España". Redaccion Medica.
  47. ^ Vilasero, Manuel (10 March 2020). "España descarta restringir los vuelos o el comercio con China por el coronavirus". El Periodico.
  48. ^ "La embajada china critica por racista a Ortega Smith tras hablar de "malditos virus chinos"". La Vanguardia. 14 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Vox pide declarar el 8 de marzo Día Nacional de las Víctimas de Coronavirus". Europa Press. 22 February 2021.
  50. ^ "Los besos y apretones de manos de Ortega Smith en Vistalegre: su baño de masas con el coronavirus". El Espanol. 10 March 2020.
  51. ^ "Vox confirma que Ortega Smith tiene coronavirus y pide perdón por su mitin del domingo". El Pais. 10 March 2020.
  52. ^ "8 de marzo de 2020: las marchas más criticadas". Agencia EFE. 4 March 2021.
  53. ^ "Vox convoca una manifestación para el 12-O contra el estado de alarma decretado por Sánchez en Madrid". Libertad Digital. 9 October 2020.
  54. ^ "Vox lleva al Tribunal Constitucional el estado de alarma de Sánchez por "abusivo"". El Confidencial. 27 April 2020.
  55. ^ Hermida, Xosé (21 October 2020). "Vox's motion of no confidence against the government: what you need to know about the two-day debate". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  56. ^ "La moción de censura de Vox fracasa con 298 'no', 52 'sí' y un Gobierno respaldado por la mayoría". La Sexta. 22 October 2020.
  57. ^ "VOX recurre ante el TC el estado de alarma". Confilegal. 6 November 2020.
  58. ^ a b "Vox se entrega al trumpismo". ABC. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  59. ^ Labrados, Fernando (23 November 2020). "¿Qué es QAnon?". EFE. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  60. ^ a b "Vox se niega a reconocer la derrota de Trump y aún no considera vencedor a Biden". 20 Minutos. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  61. ^ "Vox salva con su abstención el decreto del Gobierno sobre los fondos europeos". ABC.
  62. ^ "Sectores de Vox consideran "el mayor error de su historia" la abstención en los fondos europeos". ABC.
  63. ^ "Vox arranca la campaña en Euskadi con mítines blindados entre piedras y botellas". El Independiente. 26 June 2020.
  64. ^ "Lanzan piedras a Abascal en un acto de Vox en Girona". Huffington Post. 30 January 2021.
  65. ^ "Vox sufre un nuevo ataque en un mitin y Abascal amenaza con responder si la Policía no les protege". El Mundo. 21 April 2021.
  66. ^ "Podemos justifica la violencia contra Vox en Vallecas: "Son unos pijos que han ido a provocar"". ABC. 9 April 2021.
  67. ^ "Un Constitucional dividido anula el confinamiento domiciliario impuesto en el primer estado de alarma". El Mundo. 14 July 2021.
  68. ^ "El Constitucional falla que la restricción de la actividad del Parlamento en la pandemia vulneró los derechos de los diputados". El Pais. 5 October 2021.
  69. ^ "El Constitucional anula el segundo decreto del estado de alarma contra la pandemia". El Pais. 27 October 2021.
  70. ^ "El Gobierno ordena devolver todas las multas del primer estado de alarma por el Covid-19 al ser declarado inconstitucional". ABC. 22 October 2021.
  71. ^ "Resultados provisionales. Castilla y León". Junta of Castile and León.[permanent dead link]
  72. ^ "Spanish regional elections leads far-right party to record results". euractiv.com. 14 February 2022.
  73. ^ "DIRECTO | Última hora de la crisis en el Partido Popular". El Diario. 18 February 2022.
  74. ^ "ElectoPanel 22F". ElectoMania. 22 February 2022.
  75. ^ "Far-right gains first share of power in Spain since Franco". Reuters. 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  76. ^ "Vox speaker in Spain's Castilla y Leon regional parliament". ANSA. 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  77. ^ "Vox no logra su objetivo de ser llave para entrar en la Junta de Andalucía". ABC. 20 June 2022.
  78. ^ "Macarena Olona deja la política por "razones médicas"". ABC. 29 July 2022.
  79. ^ "Macarena Olona deja la política "por razones médicas"". El Pais. 29 July 2022.
  80. ^ "Rechazada la moción de censura de Tamames con la abstención del PP y los síes de Vox y un ex de CS". ABC. 22 March 2023.
  81. ^ Gómez, David (15 November 2018). "Abascal: "Para callarnos nos tendrán que meter en la cárcel"". La Verdad. Santiago Abascal [...]definió a su formación como «antifascista, antinazi»
  82. ^ "Vox retiene a Salvador Monedero y prescinde de Carmen Lomana". El Español (in Spanish). 23 May 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2018. Vox, el partido de derechas liderado por Santiago Abascal
  83. ^ Arroyo Menéndez 2020.
  84. ^ Cabezas 2022, p. 319–345.
  85. ^ García Rada 2021.
  86. ^ Wheeler & 2020, p. 173-184.
  87. ^ Casals, Xavier (October 2020). "¿Cómo definir a Vox? Cinco claves interpretativas". Barcelona Metròpolis.
  88. ^ VOX. The Rise of the Spanish Populist Radical Right. Taylor & Francis Group. 2021. pp. 139, 143. ISBN 9781003049227.
  89. ^ Casals 2020, p. 27.
  90. ^ a b Casals 2020, p. 30.
  91. ^ Segovia Vara, Marina; Fernández Pasalodos, Arnau (18 April 2019). "Ha vuelto la Antiespaña. Vox y su violencia discursiva". El Salto.
  92. ^ Casals 2020, pp. 31–32.
  93. ^ Lenore, Víctor (24 April 2019). "Morante, Calamaro y Abascal: ¿son los toros el nuevo rock and roll?". Voz Pópuli.
  94. ^ Fernández Vázquez, Guillermo (24 April 2019). "Vox, la extrema derecha de siempre". CTXT. A tenor de lo que muestra el programa, cultura es para Vox lengua y tradición, siguiendo el viejo lema de los partidos nacionalistas.
  95. ^ Rubio, Ricardo (17 May 2021). "Vox muestra su apoyo a Israel y condena el "ataque del terrorismo yihadista" a un país que defiende "sus fronteras"". Europa Press.
  96. ^ Baer, Alejandro (2 May 2019). "The Rise of Spain's Pro-Israel, Far-Right Party". Tablet Mag.
  97. ^ Wilson, Jason (25 October 2018). "'Dripping with poison of antisemitism': the demonization of George Soros". The Guardian.
  98. ^ Maestre, Antonio (2 May 2015), "Un histórico ultra condenado a prisión por el asalto a Blanquerna, en Vox", La Sexta
  99. ^ "El pasado nazi de un candidato de Vox en Alcalá de Henares". ABC. 7 May 2015.
  100. ^ Pérez, Sergio (13 April 2019). "El número 7 de Vox en Alcalá renuncia por su nexo con una organización nazi". La Vox de Asturias. Según informa Vox Alcalá de Henares en un comunicado, Bonito ya ha presentado ante la Junta Electoral de Zona un «escrito de renuncia a formar parte de dicha candidatura y a su acta de concejal electo» en el caso de que la obtuviera.
  101. ^ Redacción (13 April 2019). "Vox expulsa al abogado José María Ruiz Puerta por haber presidido la asociación CEDADE". Alerta Nacional. Tanto a Ortega Smith como a Rocío Monasterio les ha faltado tiempo para desvincularse de Ruiz Puerta. Sostienen que nunca ha militado ni pertenecido a Vox, lo que desdice lo que él mismo ha publicado en redes sociales y también lo que manifestó en "Alt News". En el espacio radial dirigido y conducido por Santiago Fontenla sostuvo que él tenía "acceso directo" a Abascal y daba por consumada su incorporación a ese proyecto político.
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  104. ^ "Abascal revive sus dos dramas con ETA: el ataque familiar y el asesinato de su amigo cartero". El Español. 9 November 2020.
  105. ^ "Who are the 52 deputies of Vox and where do they come from?". 12 November 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  106. ^ "Teresa López and Juan Ros, the only Vox Ceuta candidates for 10 N". 7 October 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
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  108. ^ "Franco's shadow: reburial battle sees Spain confront its darkest days". the Guardian. 23 March 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
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  115. ^ Diego, Sara (25 December 2019). "Vox coge la bandera contra el aborto proponiendo una baja escolar para madres adolescentes". El Español.
  116. ^ a b "Far right Vox commits to blocking access to abortion and euthanasia in Madrid". El Pais. 29 April 2021.
  117. ^ "Vox apuesta por la cadena perpetua tanto si el maltratador agrede o insulta como si asesina". El Español. 26 November 2019.
  118. ^ "PSOE, PP, Cs y Podemos reclaman la reforma de los delitos sexuales mientras Vox pide cadena perpetua para violadores". Heraldo. 8 November 2019.
  119. ^ Madueno, Juan Diego (2 June 2020). "Los políticos que han defendido la tauromaquia: "Está ineludiblemente unida a nuestras raíces"". El Mundo.
  120. ^ "As Spain elects its first far-right MPs since Franco, the party's leader invokes the Inquisition years". The Jewish Chronicle. 2 May 2019.
  121. ^ "Spain's far-right makes election gains using anti-Muslim sentiment". The National (Abu Dhabi). 29 April 2019.
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  124. ^ "Abascal, sobre el matrimonio gay: "Es una unión civil como la que podrían tener dos hermanas viudas"". Antena3 (in Spanish). 8 April 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2021. El líder de Vox afirma que su partido defiende que las personas del mismo sexo puedan tener una unión civil, pero no de matrimonio.
  125. ^ Alberto Suárez (30 October 2019). "Vox considera que la homosexualidad no debe hacerse pública". Cadena SER (in Spanish).
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  127. ^ a b c "Santiago Abascal: "En Vox no hay homofobia, estamos contra la ideología LGTB"". Marca. 8 April 2019.
  128. ^ a b c d e "¿Es Vox un partido homófobo?". ctxt. 21 September 2021.
  129. ^ "Vox presenta a Monasterio y Ortega Smith para Madrid". El Pais. 19 April 2019.
  130. ^ "Vox importa el 'homonacionalismo' de la ultraderecha europea señalando a los migrantes como amenaza LGTBI". InfoLibre. 19 September 2021.
  131. ^ "El Gobierno aprueba la 'ley trans', que contempla la autodeterminación de género". El Diario. 29 June 2021.
  132. ^ "La Ley Trans, una amenaza para mujeres y niños". Vox España. 2 July 2021.
  133. ^ "Una divulgadora científica lleva más de 5.000 'me gusta' con su implacable réplica a este tuit de Vox". El HuffPost (in Spanish). 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  134. ^ "Hungary passes law banning LGBT content in schools or kids' TV". the Guardian. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  135. ^ "Vox quiere llevar al Congreso a un seudohistoriador negacionista y homófobo". El Pais. 19 March 2019.
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  137. ^ "El permiso tipo B que tiene Abascal: ¿qué armas permite llevar, qué requisitos tiene y cómo se concede?". 20 Minutos. 18 June 2020.
  138. ^ "Javier Ortega Smith, el francotirador de Vox". El Pais. 1 February 2020.
  139. ^ "Who are Spain's gun owners?". El Pais. 25 October 2016.
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  143. ^ "Espinosa de los Monteros defiende a los youtubers que se van a Andorra: "Lo que hacen es legal"". La Sexta. 3 February 2021.
  144. ^ "El programa económico de Vox y su lío con el liberalismo económico: bajadas de impuestos pero proteccionista frente a la globalización". www.elblogsalmon.com (in Spanish). 26 February 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  145. ^ "Así sería una España con Abascal como presidente: proteccionista, xenófoba, centralista y policial". El Español (in Spanish). 30 July 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  146. ^ Press, Europa (1 May 2021). "Vox presenta su sindicato "anticomunista" Solidaridad frente al "sindicalismo corrompido" de UGT y CCOO". www.europapress.es. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  147. ^ "Condenados según sexo, nacionalidad y número de delitos - Resultados nacionales".
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  150. ^ Buxadé, Jorge (25 September 2020). "Entrevista a Jorge Buxadé (VOX): "El mensaje de Bruselas es que aquí damos 'paguitas' a quienes entren ilegalmente"". Periodista Digital.
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  152. ^ "Abascal apoya acoger a ucranianos: "Estos sí son refugiados, no la invasión de jóvenes de origen musulmán"". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 2 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
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  154. ^ "Vox party puts 'menace' of migrant children at centre of election drive". The Guardian. 10 November 2019.
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  156. ^ Digital, Confidencial (29 October 2020). "Vox condena el "terror multicultural" en Francia: "El fundamentalismo islámico ha declarado la guerra"". Confidencial Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 June 2021.
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  161. ^ Alías, Marina (4 July 2021). "Del 'camelo climático' al conservacionismo: el giro de Vox frente al ecologismo 'urbanita'". www.vozpopuli.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 July 2021.
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