Vulpini

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Vulpini
Vulpini.jpg
Clockwise from top: red fox, bat-eared fox, raccoon dog
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Vulpini
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832
Genus[2]

Vulpini is a taxonomic rank which represents the fox-like tribe of the subfamily Caninae (the canines), and is sister to the dog-like tribe Canini.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The taxonomy of Carnivora in general and Canidae in particular correlates with various diagnostic features of the dentition and basicranium. Rergarding Vulpini, Tedford has remarked:

These small canids are distinguished from all other Caninae in possessing a wide paroccipital process that is broadly sutured to the posterior surface of the bulla with a short and laterally turned free tip that barely extends below the body of the process. The presence of a metaconule and postprotocrista on M2 of vulpines represents the culmination of a reversal that began with late Leptocyon species to resume the form of the primitive canine M2.

The cladogram below is based on the phylogeny of Lindblad-Toh (2005)[3] modified to incorporate recent findings on Vulpes.[4]

Vulpini

Otocyon megalotis (bat-eared fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes BHL19827472 white background.png

Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXII).png

Vulpes

Vulpes zerda (fennec fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXVI).png

Vulpes cana (Blanford's fox) Blandford's fox.png

Vulpes chama (Cape fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXIII).png

Vulpes vulpes (red fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXII).png

Vulpes rueppellii (Ruppell's fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXV).png

Vulpes corsac (corsac fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXVII).png

Vulpes ferrilata (Tibetan sand fox) Tibetan sand fox illustration, transparent background.png

Vulpes macrotis (kit fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXV).png

Vulpes lagopus (Arctic fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXVI).png

References[edit]

  1. ^ Damián Ruiz-Ramoni; Francisco Juan Prevosti; Saverio Bartolini Lucenti; Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros; Ana Luisa Carreño (2020). "The Pliocene canid Cerdocyon avius was not the type of fox that we thought". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 40 (2): e1774889. doi:10.1080/02724634.2020.1774889.
  2. ^ a b c d Tedford, Richard H.; Wang, Xiaoming; Taylor, Beryl E. (2009). "Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. hdl:2246/5999.
  3. ^ Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Jaffe, David B.; Kamal, Michael; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  4. ^ Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Jin (2016). "The complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and implications for the phylogeny of Canidae". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 339 (2): 68–77. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2015.11.005. ISSN 1631-0691. PMID 26868757.