3D model (Jmol)
|Molar mass||322.32 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Vulpinic acid is a naturally occurring pulvinic acid derivative found in several lichen species, as well as some non-lichenized fungi. It was first isolated in 1925. It is bright yellow, and relatively toxic.
Occurrence in lichens
Vulpinic acid was first isolated from lichens, and is a secondary metabolite of the fungal partner. It is speculated that vulpinic acid's biological function is as a repellent for some herbivores. Humans have also exploited this toxicity by using lichens that contain high amounts of the chemical (such as Letharia vulpina) as poison for wolves and foxes. The substance showed also some antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and has even been shown to disrupt cell division in MRSA.
- Mazza, Franc Paolo (1925). "Constitution and physical properties of vulpinic acid". Rend. Accad. Sci. Napoli. 31: 182–90.
- Lawrey, James D. (1989). "Lichen Secondary Compounds: Evidence for a Correspondence between Antiherbivore and Antimicrobial Function". The Bryologist. The Bryologist, Vol. 92, No. 3. 92 (3): 326–328. doi:10.2307/3243401. JSTOR 3243401.
- Galun, ed. Margalith (1988). CRC handbook of lichenology. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-3583-3.
- Bačkor, M.; Hudá, J.; Repčák, M.; Ziegler§, W.; Bačkorová, M. (1998). "The Influence of pH and Lichen Metabolites (Vulpinic Acid and (+) Usnic Acid) on the Growth of the Lichen Photobiont Trebouxia Irregularis". The Lichenologist. 30 (6): 577. doi:10.1017/S0024282992000574.
- Shrestha, Gajendra; Thompson, Andrew; Robison, Richard; St. Clair, Larry L. (28 April 2015). "Letharia vulpina, a vulpinic acid containing lichen, targets cell membrane and cell division processes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". Pharmaceutical Biology. 54 (3): 413–418. doi:10.3109/13880209.2015.1038754.
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