vz. 52 rifle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
vz. 52 and vz. 52/57
Vz. 52 from the Swedish Army Museum.
TypeSemi-automatic rifle
Place of originCzechoslovak Socialist Republic
Service history
In service1952–1959 (Czechoslovakia)
Used bySee Users
Wars1958 Lebanon Crisis
Vietnam War
Bay of Pigs Invasion[1]
Indonesian Confrontation[2]
Rhodesian Bush War
South African Border War[3]
Nigerian Civil War
1973 Arab–Israeli War
Lebanese Civil War[4]
Invasion of Grenada[5]
Iraq War[6]
Kivu conflict
Syrian Civil War[7]
Production history
DesignerJan and Jaroslav Kratochvíl
ManufacturerPovažské strojárne, Česká zbrojovka
No. built~ 1 Million
Variantsvz. 52/57
Mass4.14 kg (9.13 lb) (vz. 52)
4.30 kg (9.5 lb) (vz. 52/57)
Length1,005 mm (39.6 in)
1,205 mm (47.4 in) with bayonet deployed
Barrel length520 mm (20.5 in)

Cartridge7.62×45mm (vz. 52)
7.62×39mm (vz. 52/57)
ActionGas-operated, tilting breechblock
Rate of fire25 rounds/min (practical)
Muzzle velocity760 m/s (2,493 ft/s) (vz. 52)
735 m/s (2,411.4 ft/s) (vz. 52/57)
Effective firing range650 m (vz. 52)
400 m (vz. 52/57)
Maximum firing range2,000 m (vz. 52/57)
Feed systemClip-fed, staggered-column, 10-round detachable box magazine
SightsOpen iron sights graduated from 100 to 900 m

The vz. 52 rifle is a self-loading rifle developed shortly after the Second World War in Czechoslovakia. Its full name is 7,62mm samonabíjecí puška vzor 52.[8] Vz. 52 is an abbreviation for vzor 52, meaning "model 52". It fires the unique 7.62×45mm cartridge. It is considered both reliable and accurate. The first 5000 vz. 52 rifles were made by Považské strojárne in Považská Bystrica, but due to production difficulties, its manufacture was taken over by Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod.[9]

Design details[edit]

Vz. 52 with handguard removed to show the gas system. The nut closer to sling bracket is the adjusting nut locknut. Between the gas piston (lighter colour) and the locknut is the adjusting nut itself. Operating rod removed and placed on the right side.

The vz. 52 is a shoulder-fired semi-automatic rifle with a tilting-bolt locking mechanism powered by an annular short-stroke gas piston system. The bolt is locked by two lugs that recess into slots machined into the receiver. However, unlike most vertically-locking breech mechanism, the rifle's bolt has the unusual feature of tipping the bolt frontally to lock the mechanism, whereas other tipping bolt designs tip the bolt to the rear.[8] The piston is actuated by residual gases from the bore, vented into a sleeve surrounding the barrel to overcome the inertia of the bolt carrier, bolt and the resistance of the return spring in order to unlock the chamber, eject the empty cartridge casing and then introduce a new round into the chamber upon return to battery.

The barrel is press-fit and pinned into the receiver. The manual safety switch is placed inside of the trigger guard and is manipulated by the shooter's index finger. The trigger mechanism closely resembles that used in the American M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle. The cocking handle is integrated into the bolt carrier and is located on the right side of the rifle; this arrangement enables the shooter to reload the rifle without disturbing his aim.

The rifle is equipped with open-type iron sights with a hooded front post and V-notch rear sight placed on a sliding tangent, adjustable for elevation between 100–950 m. The rifle can also accept day and night-time optics that interface with an optional, receiver-mounted side rail. The one-piece pistol grip stock is carved from either walnut or beech and stained a yellowish-brown color; the stock has a hollowed butt which is used as a storage compartment for a cleaning rod, oil bottle and accessories. The rifle has an integral blade bayonet which folds into a recess carved into the stock on the right side.

The vz. 52 feeds from a detachable box magazine with a 10-round cartridge capacity but could also be rapidly recharged from stripper clips with the bolt retracted. For this purpose, a stripper clip guide is milled into the front face of the bolt carrier, aligning with the magazine when the bolt is locked in the open position. This is the primary method of reloading the rifle as infantrymen were only issued 2 magazines per rifle. It ejects cartridge cases vigorously forward and to the left.


After pressure from the Soviet Union to adopt its 7.62×39mm cartridge, existing Czech rifles were rechambered to the Soviet caliber, and all further production of the rifle was chambered in this caliber and re-designated the vz. 52/57. The vz. 52/57 is identical to the vz. 52 except for its barrel and its magazines. It is considerably less common and is generally found in better condition due to the vz. 52/57 chromium-plated bore and chamber. The vz. 52 magazines can be used with the vz. 52/57, but they do not feed as reliably.


Prague Castle Guard carrying the vz. 52

All of the vz. 52 series were quickly replaced in Czechoslovak service by the vz. 58, but the earlier rifles found their way to Soviet allies during the Cold War, and have seen service in Grenada, Somalia, Cuba and Afghanistan and many of those were passed on to guerrillas.[8] At least 12,000 of Cuba's vz. 52s were emptied from that country's reserve stocks and donated to Angola as military aid during the Cuban intervention in Angola.[10]

The Czech Castle guard uses chrome-finished, deactivated vz. 52 rifles with darkened wood stocks as ceremonial weapons.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ de Quesada, Alejandro (10 Jan 2009). The Bay of Pigs: Cuba 1961. Elite 166. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9781846033230.
  2. ^ a b McNab, Chris (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. p. 136. ISBN 1-84013-476-3.
  3. ^ "Their Blood Waters Our Freedom". Youtube.com. 25 January 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  4. ^ Katz, Sam (24 Mar 1988). Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars (2). Men-at-Arms 128. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 9780850458008.
  5. ^ a b Russell, Lee E. (28 Mar 1985). Grenada 1983. Men-at-Arms 159. Osprey Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 9780850455830.
  6. ^ "Captured Weapons".
  7. ^ "The Syrian Rebels Are Using WHAT? – VZ-52". 6 August 2016.
  8. ^ a b c Bishop, Chris (2006). The Encyclopedia of Small Arms and Artillery. Grange Books. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-84013-910-5.
  9. ^ a b c d Walter, John: Rifles of the World (3rd ed.), page 229. Krause Publications, 2006.
  10. ^ a b George, Edward (2005). The Cuban intervention in Angola. New York: Frank Cass Publishers. p. 65. ISBN 978-0415647106.
  11. ^ Jowett, Philip (2016). Modern African Wars (5): The Nigerian-Biafran War 1967-70. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1472816092.
  12. ^ Small Arms Survey (2015). "Waning Cohesion: The Rise and Fall of the FDLR–FOCA" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2015: weapons and the world (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 201. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 1, 2015.
  13. ^ "CZECHOSLOVAK CONSIDERATION OF CUBAN ARMS REQUESTS" (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia) (in Czech). Wilson Center Digital Archive. January 1961. Retrieved 15 May 2016. Among his [Fidel Castro] other requests, it is necessary to mention the previous request to be supplied with 50 million 7.92[x57mm] bullets and 400,000 magazines for vz.52 self-loading rifles.
  14. ^ MINFAR ( Ministry of Armed Forces) (1981). Manual basico del Miliciano de Tropas Territoriales (in Spanish). Habana: Editorial Orbe. The tenth chapter, listing infantry weapons, refers to the Mauser vz. 24, Vz.52, AK-47 and AKM rifles in the inventory of the Territorial Troops Militia
  15. ^ Jardim, Frank (2022-08-01). "Royal Tiger Imports Ethiopian Arms". GUNS Magazine. Retrieved 2023-01-05.
  16. ^ a b c Jones, Richard D.; Ness, Leland S., eds. (January 27, 2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010 (35th ed.). Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  17. ^ "Their Blood Waters our Freedom". Youtube.com. 25 January 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  18. ^ David Campbell (2016). Israeli Soldier vs Syrian Soldier : Golan Heights 1967–73. Combat 18. illustrated by Johnny Shumate. Osprey Publishing. pp. 17–26. ISBN 9781472813305.
  19. ^ "Google Sites".
  20. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (10 Feb 2009). North Vietnamese Army Soldier 1958–75. Warrior 135. Osprey Publishing. p. 28. ISBN 9781846033711.
  21. ^ Abbott, Peter; Botham, Philip (15 Jun 1986). Modern African Wars (1): Rhodesia 1965–80. Men-at-Arms 183. Osprey Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9780850457285.


  • Čermák, Jiří (1999). 40 let konstruktérem zbraní 1946-1986 (Od samopalu ČZ 247 ke zbraňovému kompletu LADA). Brno: Ardent. ISBN 80-238-3397-9.
  • Popelínský, Lubomír (1999). Československé automatické zbraně a jejich tvůrci. Praha: Naše vojsko. ISBN 80-206-0567-3.
  • Šáda, Miroslav (2004). Československé ruční palné zbraně a kulomety. Praha: Naše vojsko. ISBN 80-206-0745-5.
  • Walter, John (2006). Rifles of the World (3rd ed.). Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-241-5.

External links[edit]