W-class Melbourne tram
W6 992 on Victoria Street
|Manufacturer||Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board|
|Assembly||Holden Body Builders
Holden Street Workshops
James Moore & Sons
|Number in service||12 in Melbourne|
|Fleet numbers||219–1040 (Not all numbers in that range are used by W classes)|
|Electric system(s)||600 V DC, Catenary|
|Current collection method||Trolley pole or pantograph|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The W-class trams are a family of electric trams built by the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board (MMTB) between 1923 and 1956. Over the 33 years of production, 752 vehicles spanning 12 sub-classes were constructed, the majority at the MMTB's Preston Workshops.
A small fleet continue to operate on the tramway network of Melbourne, Australia, where they are used on the City Circle tourist route and the Colonial Tramcar Restaurant service. The W-class tram is a cultural icon to Melbourne, those that remain in Melbourne are classified by the National Trust of Australia.
As well as Melbourne, W-class trams operate on tourist and heritage systems across the world. A number of older variants have been withdrawn from service and later sent to cities such as Copenhagen, Savannah and Seattle, and by private enthusiasts.
W-class trams were introduced to Melbourne in 1923 as a new standard design. They had a dual bogie layout and were characterised by a substantial timber frame supplanted by a steel under frame, a simple rugged design, and fine craftsmanship (particularly the older models). The W class was the mainstay of Melbourne's tramways system for 60 years. A total of 752 trams of all variants were built.
The W2 variant was supplemented in the late 1930s by 120 W5 (or "Clyde") class trams with wider cabins, and more powerful motors, however these were notorious for being difficult to drive smoothly. The W6 followed on, and became the most popular W-class tram with crews and passengers alike as they were fast, smooth and comfortable, compared with earlier W variants. Construction came to a halt for some years, with the final 40 W-class trams emerging from the Preston Workshops in 1956, when the need to provide something more capable of dealing with Olympic Games crowds than Bourke Street's buses prompted the last expansion of the network.
In April 1971, W7 1024 became the first tram to carry all over advertising livery when it was painted for the State Electricity Commission of Victoria followed by Heinz (June 1971), Preston Market (August 1971), and Channel 0 (October 1971). It was fitted with 400 light bulbs on its roofline. It was joined by W6 900 in 1973. In 1977 W2 546 was fitted with an experimental Siemens pantograph.
The W7 class with its pneumatic sliding doors and softer suspension proved popular with passengers. It was not until the 1990s that the W class was finally considered surplus to rolling stock requirements.
In 1992 an official mass withdrawal of the W class was announced by transport minister Alan Brown, this was generally due to over 200 W class remaining in service while the newer Z-class trams were in storage in varying locations, displaced by the newer A and B class vehicles. Protests over the disappearing icons brought about a reconsideration of the withdrawal policy, so it was decided 53 Ws would be retained for tourist purposes. The popular zero-fare City Circle tourist route commenced in April 1994 using 12 of the 53 trams retained.
In mid-2000 all operating W-class trams were removed from service following a series of incidents involving brake problems. Some returned to service in May 2001 on the City Circle route, with 25 operating in September 2003. The return of another 30 W-classes was announced in September 2003, but on more limited routes than before their withdrawal from service. All 53 had been returned to service by late 2003. The reintroduction followed the installation of new braking systems, speedometers, and the imposition of a 40 km/h speed limit. The trolley poles were subsequently replaced with pantographs.
The condition of the W-class fleet was criticised by the Australian Rail Tram & Bus Industry Union in September 2008, with a demand for the State Government to repair or withdraw them. A Yarra Trams spokesman said that the fleet met maintenance standards, but required more cosmetic work than other trams due to their wooden structure and age.
In January 2010, it was announced by transport minister Martin Pakula that the 26 W-class trams operating the inner city revenue services would be phased out by 2012, claiming that they were no longer suitable for revenue service and would be replaced by more modern trams. This prompted a new campaign from the National Trust of Australia to retain the W-class trams in service. It was also proposed that unused W-class trams could be better utilised by refurbishing and leasing them as "roving ambassadors" to other cities, with the claim that this could generate revenue for investment into the public transport system.
Following a change in government, in May 2011 $8 million over four years was allocated for the restoration of eight W-class trams, with options for new routes to be considered. The restoration is occurring at Preston Workshops (where many W-class trams were originally built), with the resultant tram being dubbed W8s, they are receiving full rebuilds and many upgrades, including modernised braking and suspension. The first, W8 946 entered service in March 2013, while the second, W8 959 returned from 18 months of work performed at Bendigo Tramways in June 2013. These have since been joined by W8 957 and W8 1010. As at February 2017, 981 and 983 were under overhaul in Bendigo.
As at March 2017, 12 W-class trams are in service on the Melbourne tram network, All run on the zero-fare City Circle tourist route at any time during operating hours. The last examples on routes 30, 78 and 79 were withdrawn in late 2013.
Three W6 class trams have been converted for use on the Colonial Tramcar Restaurant service which operate three meal services daily. These services can operate across the metropolitan system.
The W-class tramcars are highly popular trams in preservation both throughout Australia and around the world.
A number of W-class trams have been sent overseas, including five that were sold to Seattle between 1978 and 1993, where they operated as Seattle's own heritage streetcar line, George Benson Waterfront Streetcar Line, between 1982 and 2005. Since 1990, public outrage has forced an embargo to be placed on the sale of these trams to any overseas interest.
In February 2004, after some years of negotiation, a W-class tram was shipped to Edmonton as an ambassador for the City of Melbourne. The tram operates as part of the High Level Bridge Streetcar fleet connecting Old Strathcona to Downtown.
Two unrelated MATAs, the Dallas MATA and the Memphis MATA both run W-class trams on their downtown streetcar services. A highly modified W class tram began running in 2009 along River Street in Savannah, Georgia, its AC motors powered by biodiesel-fueled generators.
In 2005 W6 965 was restored at a cost of $25,000 and given as a wedding present from the Victorian Government to Princess Mary and Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark. Shipping line Maersk transported the tram to Denmark free of charge, waiving the estimated bill of $40,000. It was placed in the custody of the Skjoldenæsholm Tram Museum.
There were 200 W-class trams built from 1923 to 1926. They could seat 52 passengers with room for 93 people standing. They were built by the MMTB's Holden Street Workshop and Preston Workshops. Some were also built by private companies including James Moore & Sons of South Melbourne, and Holden Body Builders of Adelaide. All 200 were converted to W2s between 1928 and 1933. No. 380 was converted back to original condition in 1988 for the Heritage Fleet.
There were 30 W1-class trams built between 1925 and 1928. They were a variation on the W-class trams and used a different seating arrangement. The middle of the tram was open like the earlier cable cars and allowed passengers to get on and off the tram quickly. However in cold and wet weather the openings were only covered by pull down blinds. Passengers were looking for more comfort and these trams were later converted to the W2 design. Four SW2s have been converted back to W1 in preservation.
The W2-class was introduced in 1927 and remained in service until its final withdrawal in mid-1987.
The 406-strong class was the backbone of the MMTB's vast fleet during their heyday from the 1940s to 1960s. Most class members had been converted from the earlier W and W1-classes. The trams featured two enclosed saloon areas at either end of the tram and an open "drop-centre" section in the middle. A trademark feature of these vehicles until the 1970s was their uncomfortable wooden bench-style seats, a feature they shared with most other Melbourne trams of that period.
Mechanically, they had four under-floor motors powering two sets of the MMTB's "number one" bogies. The driver's controls were made by Westinghouse, Dick Kerr controllers, and Clyde Engineering controllers. The W2-class also had many variant gears within the tram bogies, the spur-geared W2 classes were notable due to their humming sound.
Two of the W2-class had their roller blind doors converted to sliding doors and were reclassed SW2. Four W1-class were converted directly to SW2-class.
Towards the end of their useful lives, many class members were converted to service (non-passenger) stock such as carborundum rail scrubbers, permanent-way vehicles, railgrinders and breakdown units. A large number of units were also sold to museums and public transport operators in Australia and around the world, with some still running today.
From 1978 until 1982 many W2s were painted by well-known Australian Artists as part of the "Transporting Art" program. In 1981 W2 442 was converted for use with the Colonial Tramcar Restaurant, entering service in November 1982. The last W2 to run in regular service in Melbourne ran in December 1987 on route 93 La Trobe Street to Bundoora, although a small number were used well into the early 1990s during extended tram shortages.
The W3-class trams were built between 1930 and 1934. These were the first trams to use an all steel frame. There were 16 trams built at Preston Workshops. They were built from parts and equipment which had been intended for building Y1-class trams.:32 They had larger wheels, 33 inches in diameter, which were designed to provide a smoother and quieter ride. These wheels came from scrapped S and T class trams.:32 These larger wheels made the tram body sit higher, and the floors in the drop centre were ramped to reduce the step into the saloon.:32
During the 1960s the trams developed cracks in the frame which held the motors and all were withdrawn from service by 1969.
There were five W4-class trams built between 1933 and 1935. They had a wider body and lower floor than the W3, and had transverse seating in the saloon. They were all withdrawn by 1968. The wider body of the tram meant the drivers found it difficult to see the steps.:33
The SW5-class was introduced between 1939 and 1941 and are still in use today.
Five (numbers 681 - 685) were rebuilt from old C class trams and were designated the CW5-class. Fleet numbers 686 to 719 were reserved for more of this type but no more were converted. The CW5s were later converted to W5s.
SW5-class trams have sliding doors, improved drop centre seating, hopper windows in the saloons and round cornered windscreens to differentiate themselves from W5-class trams. Trams 840 – 849 were built as SW5-class trams, two W5-class trams were converted to SW5s in 1956, with an additional 83 W5-class trams converted between 1983 and 1986.
After 1986 the SW5s converted from W5s were essentially the same in appearance to the original SW5s owing to the removal of the middle door, addition of sliding doors to replace weather blinds and rounded corner windscreens. The main visual differences post conversion were the saloon windows, which unlike the original SW5s did not have hopper windows and the retention of internal wooden bulk heads.
During the mass withdrawal of the W-classes in 1994–96, the majority of this class was retired in preference to the higher W-classes. This was due to the discovery of asbestos in the controllers.
SW5-class trams have unusual fleet numbers, W5-class trams retained their original fleet numbers after conversion to SW5s.
- CW5 converted to W5: 681 - 685
- W5 converted to SW5: 681 – 682, 721 – 734, 736 – 750, 752 – 755, 757 – 760, 764 – 765, 767 – 770, 773, 775 – 777, 780 – 781, 784 – 791, 793, 796 – 797, 800, 802, 805 – 812, 814 – 816, 818 – 819, 824, 828 – 830, 834, 836 – 838
- Built as SW5: 840 – 849
The SW6-class were introduced in 1939 and were followed by the W6-class which were produced between 1951 and 1955, 150 were built in total. At their introduction, W6-class trams were popular with passengers and crew alike for being fast, smooth and comfortable. The cab controls are the same as of other W-class trams. The first 40 had flip-over wooden seats in the end saloons, the remainder having upholstered bus seats. All had wooden seats in the centre saloon until the 1970s when the entire class was refurbished with upholstered seats throughout.
W6-class trams initially begun as a sub group of the SW6-class trams, but later became their own class. The W6 differed from the SW6 in having quieter wheels and gears plus additional soundproofing.
As of December 2013, 26 remain available for service with Yarra Trams plus another 21 stored operational in "ready reserve". Two of the trams are in the hands of preservation groups, one of which is used as a café tram in Bendigo. Three SW6-class trams also operate on the Colonial Tramcar Restaurant service.
Forty W7-class trams were built in 1955/56 for operation on new Bourke Street routes (routes 86 and 96). Originally 70 were ordered but the number was cut to 40 following a change of government at the 1955 state election. They were very similar to the preceding W6-class, but with upholstered seats throughout. Thirteen had their frames built by Ansair. As of December 2013, nine remained in service with Yarra Trams with another four stored operational in "ready reserve".
SW6 922 was partly modernised at Preston Workshops in 1993. It was to be a prototype for rebuilding the remaining SW6 fleet with air conditioning, roller bearings, modern head and tail lights, fluorescent interior lighting, dot-matrix display and pantograph using many of the same components as used in the A2 and B2 class trams. It was designated the W8 class and renumbered 1101. The rebuild radically altered the appearance of the tram and the National Trust ordered the conversion be suspended before completion.:89
Four (946, 957, 959 and 1010) were subsequently modernised ftom 2012 and designated the W8-class. The upgrades include improved traction motors, suspension and braking, improved crashworthiness and LED lighting, while retaining the general appearance of the original SW6 and SW7s.
List of preserved W-class trams
|W||220||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria||Under restoration to original condition|
|W||380||Hawthorn depot||Part of the Melbourne historic tram fleet, was reconverted from a W2-series tram in 1988 at Preston Workshops.|
|W1||421||Bendigo Tramway||Rebuilt back from W2, renumbered Bendigo 31|
|W1||427||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria||Reconverted from a W2-series tram in 1988 at Preston Workshops courtesy of a Victorian Government grant to celebrate 100 years of trams in Melbourne|
|W1||431||Hawthorn depot||Part of the Melbourne historic tram fleet, was reconverted from a W2-series tram in 1988 at Preston Workshops|
|W1||432||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W2||244||Ferrymead Heritage Park||Owned by the Heritage Tramway Trust, the commercial arm of the Tramway Historical Society at Ferrymead Heritage Park in Christchurch, New Zealand, currently in storage at Ferrymead Park due to the closure of the Christchurch Tramway.|
|W2||249||Sydney Tramway Museum||In a livery for a proposed Canberra system|
|W2||294||Australian Electric Tram Museum, Adelaide|||
|W2||321||Museum of Transport and Technology, Auckland, New Zealand|
|W2||323||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W2||325||Hawthorn depot||Has been converted to a driver training tram, thus is permanently immobile and housed at Hawthorn tram depot|
|W2||329||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In operational condition|
|W2||354||Australian Electric Tram Museum, Adelaide|||
|W2||357||Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association|||
|W2||368||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In need of restoration|
|W2||370||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W2||392||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W2||393||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In operational condition|
|W2||407||Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association|||
|W2||411||Christchurch, New Zealand||Restored as a restaurant tram for use on the Christchurch Tramway but stored in the city tram barn since the 22 February 2011 earthquake. Planned to return to service in late 2013.|
|W2||441||Perth Electric Tramway Society||On loan from Bendigo Tramway and in operational condition|
|W2||447||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W2||456||Bendigo Tramway||In storage|
|W2||509||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|
|W2||510||Hawthorn depot||Part of the Melbourne historic tram fleet|
|W2||522||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W2||577||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W2||600||VicTrack heritage fleet|||
|W2||643||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W2||646||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|SW2||275||Bendigo Tramway||Renumbered Bendigo 33|
|SW2||426||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In operational condition|
|SW2||432||Sydney Tramway Museum||Destroyed in an arson attack in October 2015|
|SW2||436||Masterton, New Zealand||Privately owned, was converted from a W1-class tram to SW2-class in 1938|
|SW2||644||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|
|W3||661||Ballarat Tramway Museum|| In operational condition|
|W3||663||Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association|||
|W3||667||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W3||668||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W4||670||Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association|||
|W4||671||Ballarat Tramway Museum|| In operational condition|
|W3||673||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W4||674||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In operational condition|
|W5||739||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W5||759||VicTrack heritage fleet|||
|W5||762||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W5||766||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In need of restoration|
|W5||782||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W5||792||Sydney Tramway Museum|||
|W5||795||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W5||821||VicTrack heritage fleet|||
|SW5||840||VicTrack heritage fleet|||
|SW5||849||Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association|||
|W6||976||Bendigo Tramway||Restaurant tram|
|W6||996||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|SW6||850||VicTrack heritage fleet|||
|SW6||852||Auckland Dockline Tramway, Auckland, New Zealand|||
|SW6||887||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|SW6||881||Auckland Dockline Tramway, Auckland, New Zealand|||
|SW6||891||Perth Electric Tramway Society, Western Australia|
|SW6||893||Museum of Transport and Technology in Auckland, New Zealand|
|SW6||900||VicTrack heritage fleet|||
|SW6||902||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|SW6||906||Museum of Transport and Technology in Auckland, New Zealand|
|SW6||918||Bendigo Tramway||Renumbered Bendigo 34|
|W7||1001||Tramway Museum Society of Victoria|||
|W7||1013||Australian Electric Traction Association Museum, St Kilda||In operational condition|
|W7||1017||Perth Electric Tramway Society||In operational condition|
|W7||1023||Perth Electric Tramway Society, Western Australia|
|W7||1032||Museum of Transport and Technology in Auckland, New Zealand|
|W7||1040||Hawthorn depot||Last W-class built|
|W2||234||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley|
|W2||353||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley, renumbered 1978|
|W2||417||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley|
|W2||626||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley, renumbered 452, ex-New Orleans|
|SW2||478||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley, renumbered 454, ex-New Orleans|
|W2||331||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley, renumbered 455, ex-New Orleans|
|W2||539||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley|
|W2||540||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley|
|W2||545||Memphis, Tennessee||Used in regular service on MATA Trolley|
|W2||553||Memphis, Tennessee||Destroyed by fire on 7 April 2014 |
|W2||369||Dallas, Texas||Operates along McKinney Avenue M-Line, nicknamed Matilda|
|W2||496||San Francisco, California||Used in regular service on F Market & Wharves line|
|SW6||916||San Francisco, California||Used in regular service on F Market & Wharves line|
|W5||756||Savannah, Georgia||Used on the River Street Streetcar, electric motors are powered by a generator and battery hybrid drive|
|W2||531||San Jose, California||Operates on the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority historic trolley line|
|W2||601||Chisholm, Minnesota||Used at the Minnesota Discovery Center|
|W2||606||Chisholm, Minnesota||Used at the Minnesota Discovery Center |
|W2||648||Rio Vista, California||Preserved in operational condition at Western Railway Museum|
|W6||930||Edmonton, Alberta||Used on High Level Bridge line on summer weekends|
- "1024…MMTB Revenue Earner" Trolley Wire issue 136 October 1971 page 8
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- "City Section" Trolley Wire issue 169 April 1977 page 11
- On this Day Parliament of Victoria
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- W-Class Yarra Trams
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- "Tram for Denmark's Royal couple" Trolley Wire issue 303 November 2005 page 15
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- "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board W1 Class No 431". hawthorntramdepot.org.au. 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "News in Brief" Trolley Wire issue 203 December 1982 page 2
- John Beckhaus (1989). Australian Rail Companion. Sherborne Sutherland Publishing. ISBN 1-86275-005-X.
- "Ballarat Tramway Museum – Ballarat Trams are Ballarat History". btm.org.au. 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "W3 Class 663". Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Norman Cross (1993). Destination City: Melbourne Electric Trams (5th ed.). Transit Australia Publishing. ISBN 0909459177.
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- "SW6 Class". Vicsig. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
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- "W7 class". Vicsig. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "W-class icon T946 on track to full restoration". The Age. 23 July 2013.
- "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board W Class No 380". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Depot. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
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- Brundle, Liam. "The Trams of the Sydney Tramway Museum – Operational Tram List". Sydney Tramway Museum. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
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- "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board W2 Class No 325". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Depot. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
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- "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board W2 Class No 510". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Depot. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
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- "No. 661". Ballarat Tramway Museum. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "W4 Class 670". Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "No. 671". Ballarat Tramway Museum. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board W5 Class No 774". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Depot. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "SW5 Class 849". Melbourne Tramcar Preservation Association. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Auckland Dockline Tram". Auckland Dockline Tram. Retrieved 2014-04-10.
- "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board W7 Class No 1040". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Depot. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Ehrlich, Peter. "Memphis, Tennessee". www.nycsubway.org. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- MATA trolley catches fire; second blaze in six months The Commercial Appeal 7 April 2014
- "Car 369 /Matilda". McKinney Avenue Transit Authority. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
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- "Melbourne, Australia (SW6 Class) – Streetcar No. 916". Market Street Railway. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Davis, Ennis. "Streetcars Return to Savannah". Metro Jacksonville. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
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- Media related to W class trams at Wikimedia Commons
- Media related to Ex-Melbourne trams in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
- List of Melbourne trams at Vicsig, including all varieties of W class
- Flickr gallery
- Flickr gallery