The team was founded in 1990 as Nadezhda Krasnoarmeysk, being initially a futsal club. Futsal was played until 1998, when the club left it to concentrate in association football. Nadezhda played for two years in the second tier, attaining 5th and 3rd spots, before being disbanded at the end of the 2000 season, with most players moving to newly founded Nadezhda Noginsk.
In 2003 the team was back as Rossiyanka, attaining promotion to the Russian Championship in the first try. Rossiyanka immediately consolidated itself as one of the championship's leading teams and won the 2005 and 2006 championships, preceded by a silver in its 2004 debut. From 2007 to 2009 the team was second to Zvezda Perm, before winning its third championship in 2010.
Rossiyanka is a regular of the Champions League, where it has reached the quarter-finals in 2008 and 2012. As Russia ranks among the top 8 UEFA Leagues by coefficient, Rossiyanka has entered the competition both as the Russian Championship's champion or vice-champion.