WISE 1828+2650

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Coordinates: Sky map 18h 28m 31.10s, +26° 50′ 37.79″

WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8
WISE 1828+2650.jpg
WISE 1828+2650 is circled in the centre
(Infrared image from the WISE space telescope).
Observation data
Epoch MJD 55467.61[1]      Equinox J2000[1]
Constellation Lyra
Right ascension  18h 28m 31.10s[1]
Declination 26° 50′ 37.79″[1]
Spectral type >Y2[2]
Apparent magnitude (J (MKO filter system)) 23.57 ± 0.35[1]
Apparent magnitude (H (MKO filter system)) 22.45 ± 0.08[2]
Proper motion (μ) RA: 954 ± 11[2] mas/yr
Dec.: 153 ± 12.5[2] mas/yr
Parallax (π)70 ± 14[3] mas
Distanceapprox. 47 ly
(approx. 14 pc)
Mass3–6 or 0.5–20[2] MJup
Temperature250–400[2] K
Age2–4 or 0.1–10[2] Gyr
Other designations
WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8[1]
WISEP J182831.08+265037.8[2]
WISEP J1828+2650[4]
WISE J1828+2650[1]
WISE 1828+2650[1]
Database references

WISE 1828+2650 (full designation WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8) is a brown dwarf or rogue planet[2] of spectral class >Y2,[2] located in constellation Lyra at approximately 47 light-years from Earth.[3] It is the "archetypal member" of the Y spectral class.[4]

History of observations[edit]


WISE 1828+2650 was discovered in 2011 from data collected by NASA's 40 cm (16 in) Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) space telescope at infrared wavelength. WISE 1828+2650 has two discovery papers: Kirkpatrick et al. (2011) and Cushing et al. (2011), however, basically with the same authors and published nearly simultaneously.[1][4]

  • Kirkpatrick et al. presented discovery of 98 new found by WISE brown dwarf systems with components of spectral types M, L, T and Y, among which also was WISE 1828+2650 – coolest of them.[1][~ 1]
  • Cushing et al. presented discovery of seven brown dwarfs – one of T9.5 type, and six of Y-type – first members of the Y spectral class, ever discovered and spectroscopically confirmed, including "archetypal member" of the Y spectral class – WISE 1828+2650.[4] These seven objects are also the faintest seven of 98 brown dwarfs, presented in Kirkpatrick et al. (2011).[1]


Currently the most accurate distance estimate of WISE 1828+2650 is a trigonometric parallax, measured using Spitzer Space Telescope and published in 2013 by Trent Dupuy and Adam Kraus: 0.070 ± 0.014 arcsec, corresponding to a distance 14.3+3.6
pc, or 46.6+11.6

WISE 1828+2650 distance estimates
Source Parallax
Kirkpatrick et al. (2011)
 (Table 6)
<9.4 <30.7 [1]
Beichman et al. (2013)
 (according to Kirkpatrick et al. (2012))
122 ± 13 8.2+1.0
Beichman et al. (2013) 90 ± 9.5[~ 2] 11.2+1.3
Dupuy & Kraus (2013) 70 ± 14[~ 3] 14.3+3.6
Non-trigonometric distance estimates are marked in italic. The most precise estimate is marked in bold.

Proper motion[edit]

WISE 1828+2650 has proper motion of about 966 milliarcseconds per year.[2]

WISE 1828+2650 proper motion estimates
Source μ
P. A.
Kirkpatrick et al. (2011) 1084 84 1078 ± 327 118 ± 409 [1]
Beichman et al. (2013) 966 81 954 ± 11 153 ± 12.5 [2]
Dupuy & Kraus (2013) 1034 ± 15 80.4 ± 0.9 1020 ± 15 173 ± 16 [3]
The best estimate is marked in bold.

Physical properties[edit]

Until the discovery of WISE 0855−0714 in 2014 WISE 1828+2650 was considered as the coldest currently known brown dwarf or the first example of free-floating planet (it is not currently known if it is a brown dwarf or a free-floating planet).[2] It has a temperature in the range 250–400 K (−23–127 °C; −10–260 °F)[2] and was initially estimated below 300 K,[4] or about 27 °C (81 °F). It has been assigned the latest known spectral class (>Y2,[2] initially estimated as >Y0[4]).

The mass of WISE 1828+2650 is in the range 0.5–20 MJup for ages of 0.1–10 Gyr.[2]

High tangential velocity of WISE 1828+2650, characteristic of an old disk population, indicates possible age of WISE 1828+2650 in the range 2–4 Gyr, leading to mass estimate of about 3–6 MJup.[2][~ 4]

WISE 1828+2650 is similar in appearance to the other Y-type object WD 0806-661 B. WD 0806-661 B could have formed as a planet close to its primary, WD 0806-661 A, and later, when the primary became a white dwarf and lost most of its mass, have migrated into a larger orbit of 2500 AU, and similarity between WD 0806-661 B and WISE 1828+2650 may indicate that WISE 1828+2650 had formed in the same way.[2]

Possible binarity[edit]

Comparison between WISE 1828+2650 and WD 0806-661 B may suggest that WISE 1828+2650 is a system of two equal-mass objects. Observations with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck-II LGS-AO system had not revealed binarity, suggesting that if any such companion exists, it would have an orbit less than 0.5 AU, and no evidence for binarity yet exists.[2]


Brown dwarfs Teide 1, Gliese 229B, and WISE 1828+2650 compared to red dwarf Gliese 229A, Jupiter and our Sun

See also[edit]

The other six discoveries of brown dwarfs, published by Cushing et al. in 2011:[4]


  1. ^ These 98 brown dwarf systems are only among first, not all brown dwarf systems, discovered from data, collected by WISE: six discoveries were published earlier (however, also listed in Kirkpatrick et al. (2011)) in Mainzer et al. (2011) and Burgasser et al. (2011), and the other discoveries were published later.
  2. ^ According to Dupuy & Kraus (2013), this measurement uncertainty is likely underestimated.
  3. ^ Relative parallax.
  4. ^ This may indicate that WISE 1828+2650 is more likely a free-floating planet, not a brown dwarf, since it is below the lower mass limit for brown dwarfs (~13 MJup, see brown dwarf).


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. A.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bailey, Vanessa; Beichman, Charles A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Bochanski, John J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Capak, Peter L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Knox, Russell P.; Manohar, Swarnima; Masters, Daniel; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Prato, Lisa A.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Salvato, Mara; Schurr, Steven D.; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Stock, Nathan D.; Vacca, William D. (2011). "The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 197 (2): 19. arXiv:1108.4677v1. Bibcode:2011ApJS..197...19K. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/197/2/19.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Barman, Travis S.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Wright, E. L. (2013). "The Coldest Brown Dwarf (or Free-floating Planet)?: The Y Dwarf WISE 1828+2650". The Astrophysical Journal. 764 (1): 101. arXiv:1301.1669. Bibcode:2013ApJ...764..101B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/764/1/101.
  3. ^ a b c d e Dupuy, T. J.; Kraus, A. L. (2013). "Distances, Luminosities, and Temperatures of the Coldest Known Substellar Objects". Science. 341 (6153): 1492–5. arXiv:1309.1422. Bibcode:2013Sci...341.1492D. doi:10.1126/science.1241917. PMID 24009359.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, D.; Freedman, Richard S.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wright, Edward L. (2011). "The Discovery of Y Dwarfs using Data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)". The Astrophysical Journal. 743 (1): 50. arXiv:1108.4678. Bibcode:2011ApJ...743...50C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/1/50.
  5. ^ Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Gelino, C. R.; Cushing, M. C.; Mace, G. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Marsh, K. A.; Wright, E. L.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; McLean, I. S.; Mainzer, A. K.; Burgasser, A. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Parker, S.; Salter, G. (2012). "Further Defining Spectral Type "Y" and Exploring the Low-mass End of the Field Brown Dwarf Mass Function". The Astrophysical Journal. 753 (2): 156. arXiv:1205.2122. Bibcode:2012ApJ...753..156K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/753/2/156.

External links[edit]