|City of license||Chicago, Illinois|
|Broadcast area||Chicago market / Northern Illinois|
|Slogan||Chicago's Talk Leader|
|Frequency||890 kHz C-QUAM AM Stereo
(also on HD Radio)
|Repeaters||WLS-FM 94.7 HD2|
|First air date||April 12, 1924|
|Callsign meaning||World's Largest Store (original owner Sears)|
|Former callsigns||WES (April 9–11, 1924)|
|Former frequencies||870 kHz ("345 meters" or "344.6 meters", 1924–1941)
670 kHz ("448 meters", pre-April 12, 1924)
|Affiliations||Westwood One News/CNN
The Weather Channel
(Radio License Holdings LLC)
|Sister stations||WKQX, WLS-FM, WLUP|
|Webcast||Listen Live (via iHeartRadio)|
WLS (890 kHz, "Chicago's Talk Leader") is a commercial AM radio station licensed to serve Chicago, Illinois, USA. Owned by Cumulus Media along with WLS-FM (94.7 MHz), the station broadcasts as a Class A station on a clear-channel frequency with 50 kilowatts (or 50,000 watts) of power. WLS maintains its studios in The Loop section of Chicago, and its transmitting tower is located on the south edge of Tinley Park, Illinois.
WLS is currently a talk radio station, with its programming consisting of about half local talk shows and the rest syndicated programming such as Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Mark Levin, Red Eye Radio, Wall Street Journal This Morning, Kim Komando and others. WLS has carried Notre Dame Fighting Irish football and basketball games since the 2006 season.
WLS had been wholly owned and operated by the radio division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) since the purchase of its parent company in 1959. Five years earlier WLS was merged with WENR, a station with which WLS had shared its frequency since the 1920s. ABC-owned radio stations not affiliated with ESPN Radio or Radio Disney, including WLS, were sold to Citadel Broadcasting on June 12, 2007 with Citadel licensing the name ABC Radio for 2 years after the sale. Citadel was bought by Cumulus Media on September 16, 2011.
In the 1920s, Sears, Roebuck and Company was a major mail order company. To target farmers, Sears bought time on radio stations, and then decided to form their own station. Just before the permanent station was ready, Sears began broadcasts on March 21, 1924 as WBBX with noon programs using the WMAQ studios. WLS was one of the original 50,000 watt Class I-A clear-channel stations which did not share its frequency (of 890 AM) with any other station during nighttime (sunset to sunrise) hours.
Sears broadcast test transmissions from its own permanent studios on April 9, 10 and 11, 1924, using the callsign WES (for "World's Economy Store"). On April 12, 1924, the station commenced officially, using the callsign WLS (for "World's Largest Store"); and on April 19, aired its first National Barn Dance. Sears originally operated its station at its Chicago headquarters on Chicago's West Side where the company's mail order business was located. Sears then moved the WLS studios into the Sherman House hotel in downtown Chicago.
Sears opened the station in 1924 as a service to farmers and subsequently sold it to the Prairie Farmer magazine in 1928. The station moved to the Prairie Farmer Building on West Washington in Chicago, where it remained for 32 years. For a few months after ABC's 1960 purchase of it and the format change, the "bright new sound" that began in May 1960 was broadcast from the Prairie Farmer Building. WLS didn't make the move to downtown Michigan Avenue's Stone Container Building, located at 360 North Michigan Avenue, until October of that year. Thirty years later, it would move once more, to its present location at 190 North State in downtown Chicago. It was the scene of the National Barn Dance, which featured Gene Autry, Pat Buttram, and George Gobel, and which was second only to the Grand Ole Opry (in itself a local National Barn Dance spinoff) in presenting country music and humor.
The station also experimented successfully in many forms of news broadcasting, including weather and crop reports. Its most famous news broadcast was the eyewitness report of the Hindenburg disaster by Herbert Morrison. Morrison and engineer Charles Nehlsen had been sent to New Jersey by WLS to cover the arrival of the Hindenburg for delayed broadcast. Their recordings aired the next day on May 7, 1937, the first time that recordings of a news event were ever broadcast.
Starting in the 1930s, WLS had been an affiliate of the Blue Network of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and as such aired the popular Fibber McGee and Molly and Lum and Abner comedy programs (both produced at the studios of Chicago's NBC-owned stations, WENR and WMAQ) during their early years. When the Federal Communications Commission forced NBC to sell the Blue Network, WLS maintained its affiliation with the network under its new identity, the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). Under this affiliation, some programs from the network that were not commercially sponsored or which were scheduled to cross the time that WLS and WENR shifted its use of the same frequency (such as baseball or football games) were transferred to air on a third Blue Network/ABC affiliate in Chicago, WCFL. Blue/ABC network broadcasts of addresses by labor leaders were also shifted away from WLS and WENR to WCFL, which was owned at the time by the Chicago Federation of Labor.
WENR became active in late 1924 and early 1925, the creation of E. N. Rauland, whose company manufactured the All-American brand of radios. Rauland started with 10 watts on 1030 kHz in 1924; on March 19, 1925, he received his license for WENR at 100 watts. By late 1925 WENR was using a 1000 watt transmitter designed by Rauland himself. The station quickly entered into a time-sharing agreement with WBCN, owned at that time by the Chicago Southtown newspaper. The two stations changed frequencies to 1040 kHZ a year later.
By 1927, Chicago investor Samuel Insull had taken serious interest in both stations. A founding partner of KYW, he sold his interest in it and had started Great Lakes Broadcasting. Insull purchased both stations, paying $1 million for WENR alone. Under Insull's management, the two stations once more changed frequencies, this time to 870 kHz, when the combined stations became the first Chicago radio station operating under 50,000 watts of power from a new transmitter in Downers Grove, Illinois in 1929. Insull's Great Lakes Broadcasting holdings also included a mechanical television station, W9XR, which went on the air after the Downers Grove transmitter was installed. Insull moved his stations first into Chicago's Strauss Building, and then to his own Civic Opera House. The investor's fortune began dwindling by 1931; Insull then sold the licenses of both stations to National Broadcasting Company. By early 1933, WBCN's call letters had left the airwaves and the frequency was occupied by WENR, which became part of NBC's Blue Network, and by WLS. NBC shut down W9XR by 1933, just as it had done with WX9AP, which it acquired in its purchase of radio station WMAQ.
Changes were made regarding AM frequencies in 1941 as a result of the North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement; this moved WENR and WLS from 870 kHz to 890 kHz. In August 1943, NBC was ordered to divest itself of the Blue Network and its stations; WENR and Blue were sold to Edward J. Noble. In 1945 the Blue Network would be renamed as the American Broadcasting Company. The 1931 sale of the station to NBC moved WENR from the Civic Opera House to the Merchandise Mart, NBC's Chicago headquarters. The station continued on at the Mart until 1952 by becoming NBC's tenant, moving back to the Civic Opera House in that year. Paul Harvey's Chicago broadcasting career began at WENR.
WENR and WLS used the same frequencies in a time-sharing arrangement until 1954, when ABC (then known as American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres) bought a 50 percent interest in WLS and combined the stations. In November 1959 ABC announced its purchase of the Prairie Farmer and its half of WLS, giving ABC full ownership of the station.
The WLS Musicradio era
In 1960 WLS hired star disc jockey Dick Biondi (a 1998 inductee of the National Radio Hall of Fame) from WEBR in Buffalo, New York, to anchor the station's new Top 40 music radio format that began May 2, 1960. Mort Crowley was the first on-air voice of the new WLS (6 AM); the first song played was "Alley-Oop" by the Hollywood Argyles, four full weeks before it debuted on the Hot 100. Other notable disc jockeys who worked at WLS include Fred Winston, Art Roberts, Ron "Ringo" Riley, Gene Taylor, Larry Lujack, Dex Card, Clark Weber, Chuck Buell, Kris Erik Stevens, Joel Sebastian, Gary Gears, Jerry Kay, Bob Sirott, John Records Landecker, Yvonne Daniels, Steve Dahl, Garry Meier, Brant Miller, Tom Kent, Steve King, Jeff Davis, and Tommy Edwards. Some of the production directors responsible for the sound of WLS were Ray Van Steen, Hal Widsten, Jim Hampton, Bill Price and Tommy Edwards. In the 1960s WLS was a major force in introducing new music and recording artists.
The first US airplay of a record by The Beatles ("Please Please Me") was on the WLS Dick Biondi show on February 8, 1963. WLS was voted by broadcasters nationally as "The Station of the Year" in 1967, 1968 & 1969. John Rook was named "Program Director of the Year" in 1968 & 1969 as WLS was estimated attracting 4.2 million listeners weekly by Pulse research. Dr. Cody Sweet became the voice of "WLS Super Summer Radio" in 1967.
The WLS News Dept included Lyle Dean, Jeff Hendrix, Catherine Johns, Dick Harley, Harley Carnes, Linda Marshall, Karen Hand, Jim Johnson, Jerry Golden, Jim Wynne, Stan Dale, Bill Guthrie and Les Grobstein was the Stations Sports Director.
WLS also produced the weekly Silver Dollar Survey from October 14, 1960, to December 22, 1967, broken by the Silver Beatle Survey on February 21, 1964 (see picture to the right) and the Super Summer Survey from May 5, 1967, to August 25, 1967. The survey nominally contained 40 current listings, except for occasional weeks when it contained less current listings, usually 20, plus a special listing of greatest oldies. Thereafter the survey changed its name numerous times (89 WLS Hit Parade, 89 WLS Chicagoland Hit Parade, WLS Musicradio 89, etc.). Starting with the July 20, 1970 survey, the number of listings dropped from 40 to 30, then varying from 25 to 40 starting June 26, 1972, then dropping to 15 by March 9, 1974, then increasing to a high of 45 by the end of 1975. No surveys were printed from March 13, 1972, through July 16, 1973. The year-end listing was the 20 greatest hits of the year for each year from 1963 through 1966, increased to 89 from 1967 onward.
By the mid-1970s, WLS became conservative about introducing new songs, and many record promoters referred to the station as the "World's Last Station" to add new releases for airplay, usually only after the songs had reached the top 10 on Billboard's Hot 100. (However, in 1974 the station started playing the track "Lady" by the Chicago band Styx from an older album of theirs, resulting in other stations around the country adding the song and making the track Styx' first national Top 40 hit.) During the 1970s WLS ran a Sunday night music interview program called Music People.
Well into the 1980s, WLS continued as a mainstream Top 40/CHR formatted station. By 1985, the music evolved into more of a Hot AC (Adult Contemporary) format. In 1986, WLS began evening talk programming as its ratings were on a steady decline.
Unique "WLS-only" versions of songs
Like many AM radio stations of the seventies, WLS edited many of the songs they played into a more "radio-friendly" or "radio edit" (a term still used today) format, usually 3–4 minutes in length. Even songs that were only 4 minutes in length as a single were sometimes edited. Of course even longer songs, such as Elton John's "Philadelphia Freedom" and "Someone Saved My Life Tonight", were heavily edited for time. Other special editions of some Top 40 songs exclusively made for their broadcasting were done by the musicians themselves or sometimes by the WLS audio engineers. Among these were:
- Reunion's "Life Is A Rock (But the Radio Rolled Me)" (1974) – Reunion changed audio lyric to "Life is a rock/WLS rolled me" (like it had for competition WCFL)
- Johnny Wakelin's "Black Superman (Muhammad Ali)" (1974) – Added quotes from Howard Cosell between vocals.
- Benny Bell's "Shaving Cream" (1975) – Added additional verse making reference to WLS disc jockey Bob Sirott.
- John Denver's "Thank God I'm A Country Boy" (1975) – added "farm animal" sound effects.
- Captain and Tennille's "Love Will Keep Us Together" and "Por Amor Viveremos" (1975) – Created a "Spanglish" version with alternating English/Spanish vocals. The Spanish-only version of the song ("Por Amor Viveremos") charted in 1975.
- Dickie Goodman's "Mr. Jaws" (1975) - Introduced as "This is Dickie Goodman at WLS".
- The Pointer Sisters' "Fire" (1979) – Changed audio lyric to "I'm riding in your car/you turn on W-L-S." Again, done by the Pointer Sisters who did similar for other Top40 stations in other markets.
The WLS Talkradio 890 era
By 1987, WLS was an adult contemporary station during the day and talk at night. Their approach was no longer music intensive. By 1988, the station evolved into a soft AC format with very few if any current product, and liberally laced with oldies. By now the station focused more on personality and less on music, including a Sunday night late night talk show called "Sex Talk" and a daily late night sports related talk show.
In June 1989, WLS announced they were going all talk by the end of the summer. Rumors were that the change was to happen September 1. Air personalities were becoming more talk intensive anyway and midday talk was added as well. But quietly with no warning, on August 23, 1989 at 7 pm, WLS stopped playing music altogether. Phil Duncan was the last DJ to play music on WLS, and as Phil finished up his show, a voice in the back of the studio (that of then-WYTZ worker Steven Craig) was heard saying "Goodnight!"; Steven unknowingly (and unoffically) became the last live voice on WLS Musicradio. Appropriately, the last song was "Just You 'n' Me" by Chicago. WLS then became a 24/7 all talk statiom featuring high-rated talk talents from around the country, such as Bob Lassiter from Tampa Bay, Stacy Taylor from San Diego and their biggest hit, Rush Limbaugh out of New York. After a few years, however, they dropped Lassiter, Taylor and some of their other national hosts in favor of more local hosts. Jay Marvin also had several stints on WLS, where he was one of the few liberal voices on its political talk shows. The station is also the "flagship" broadcast outlet for the weekly, national political talk show, Beyond the Beltway with Bruce DuMont.
By the mid-1990s, WLS had such low ratings that management seriously considered going back to its classic rock format. However, with the addition of Garry Meier to Roe Conn's afternoon show, WLS increased the number of listeners. Meier has since left the show.
On Memorial Day 2007, WLS took a cue from sister station WABC and ran a special day of musical programming, "The Big 89 Rewind," featuring live visits from Larry Lujack, Tommy Edwards, Fred Winston, Chris Shebel, Jeff Davis, John Records Landecker, Tom Kent, and other D.J.s, sounders, and airchecks from the Musicradio era. The broadcasts re-aired on Independence Day 2007, and there was a new Rewind in 2008.
The station voice was longtime WLS personality Jeff Davis. Davis was terminated on April 11, 2012 and replaced by Scott Fischer. As WLS is in the process of observing their 89th anniversary on AM 890, old jingles and station IDs were brought back, along with resurrecting a late 1960s branding, "89 WLS".
Cumulus Media terminated its affiliation with overnight radio program Coast to Coast AM on many of its stations, including WLS, in the spring of 2012. During local hours (4:30-11 a.m. & 2-6 p.m.), traffic and weather reports are delivered on the fives.
Longtime morning show hosts Don and Roma Wade retired in December 2012. They had been off the air since October due to Don Wade's cancer treatments. On Friday, September 6, 2013, Don Wade died of a brain tumor. His wife and on air co-host Roma posted his death on the WLS web page, and the news spread through the news and on Facebook.
Current programming schedule
12-4 a.m. Red Eye Radio
4-4:30 a.m. Wall Street Journal This Morning
4:30-5 a.m. First Morning News with John Dempsey
5-9 a.m. John Howell
11-2 p.m. Rush Limbaugh
2-6 p.m. The Steve Dahl Show
9-12 a.m. Mark Levin
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- "Disney June 12, 2007-Disney and Citadel Announce Completion of ABC Radio Merger". Corporate.disney.go.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
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- "Chicago Museum of Broadcasting History-Dick Biondi Hall of Fame Induction 1998". Museum.tv. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Mr. Pop History-Week of May 5, 1960-page 3-The new WLS Lineup. Biondi was at WKBW, Buffalo, previously, but walked out.(PDF)
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- "Yvonne Daniels, Radio Hall of Fame". Radio Hall of Fame. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
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- "WLS Surveys". Retrieved July 7, 2011.
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- "The WLS Big 89 Countdown!". Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- Childers, Scott (2008). Chicago's WLS Radio (Images of America: Illinois). Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 9780738561943.
- "Bruce DuMont-Beyond the Beltway". WLS Radio 890AM. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "audio file-Lujack and Edwards-"The Big 89 Rewind" May 28, 2007". Reelradio.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "YouTube video of Big 89 Rewind-2007". Youtube. August 2, 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "YouTube video of WLS Rewind 2008". Youtube. September 11, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- WLS Wins White Sox Radio Rights
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (March 2011)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to WLS (AM).|
- Official website
- Query the FCC's AM station database for WLS
- Radio-Locator Information on WLS
- Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WLS
- Scott Childers' History of WLS
- WLS music surveys from 1960 to 1982
- Jeff Roteman's WLS tribute site
- I Remember JFK: WLS Radio
- Reel Radio-John Rook Collection-audio files including WLS jingles and air checks for many personalities
- Reel Radio-Windy City Airchecks Collection-WLS: The MusicRadio Years 1960-1985-audio files covering the 25 year period
- Chicago Tribune December 10, 2009-Citadel Broadcasting Prepares for Pre-Arranged Bankruptcy
- A look at the WLS studios-2004