Slimbridge has numerous nene (also known as Hawaiian geese), the rarest goose in the world.
|Area||120 acres (49 ha)|
WWT Slimbridge is a wetland reserve managed by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust near Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, England. Slimbridge is halfway between Bristol and Gloucester on the eastern side of the estuary of the River Severn. The reserve was set up by the artist and naturalist Sir Peter Scott and opened on 10 November 1946. It consists of some 800 hectares (2,000 acres) of pasture, reed bed, lagoon and salt marsh. Many water birds live here all year round, and others are migrants on their ways to and from their summer breeding grounds. Other birds overwinter here, including large numbers of white-fronted geese and increasing numbers of Bewick's swans.
The Wildlife and Wetland Trust at Slimbridge was set up in 1946 by Peter Scott, as a centre for research and conservation. In a move unusual at the time, he opened the site to the public so that everyone could enjoy access to nature.
This modest beginning developed in time into the formation of the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, the only United Kingdom charity to promote the protection of wetland birds and their habitats around the world. Although starting out at Slimbridge, the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust now owns or manages nine other reserves in Britain, and advocates for wetlands and conservation issues world-wide. WWT Consulting is an offshoot of the Wildlife & Wetland Trust and is based at Slimbridge. It provides ecological surveys and assessments, and offers consultancy services in wetland habitat design, wetland management, biological waste-water treatment systems and the management of reserves and their visitor centres. The Queen in later years became Patron to the WWT, and Prince Charles became the President.
A bust of founder Sir Peter Scott by Jacqueline Shackleton was completed in 1986 and is on display in the grounds. His wife Lady Philippa Scott sat for Jon Edgar as part of his Environmental Series of heads, and a bronze was unveiled in the visitor centre in December 2011. A sculpture of Peter Scott's mother by Kathleen Scott is also on display in the grounds.
The site consists of 800 hectares (2,000 acres) of reserve, of which part is landscaped and can be visited by the public. There is a collection of non-native bird species from wetlands across the world, some of which form part of international breeding programmes. The reserve includes a mixture of pastureland, much of which gets flooded in winter, lagoons, reed beds and salt marshes besides the Severn Estuary. Many wildfowl visit the site including greater white-fronted geese, spoonbills, avocets and even common cranes, the latter being birds that were originally bred here and later released on the Somerset Levels. There are also some rare species of plant on the reserve including the grass-poly (Lythrum hyssopifolia) and the wasp orchid, a variant of the bee orchid (Ophrys apifera).
The number of ducks, geese and swans is greatest in winter, with large flocks of greater white-fronted geese, sometimes with a rare lesser white-fronted goose amongst them. Bewick's swans are a feature of Slimbridge in winter, arriving from northern Russia to enjoy the milder climate of southern England. Their behaviour has been studied intensively at Slimbridge. Birds of prey such as peregrine and merlin also visit the centre in the winter, as well as wading birds and some woodland birds, and it is a good place to see the elusive water rail.
Species present all year round include little and great crested grebes, lapwing, redshank, tufted duck, gadwall, kingfisher, reed bunting, great spotted woodpecker, sparrowhawk and little owl. In the spring, passage waders visit the pools alongside the estuary; these include whimbrel, common, wood and green sandpipers, spotted redshank, common greenshank, avocet, godwit, little gull and black tern, and other migrants arriving at the reserve include wheatear, whinchat, redstart and black redstart.
Swans and geese usually start to arrive in late October. Passage waders in the autumn include red knot, godwit, dunlin, ringed and grey plovers, ruff, common greenshank, spotted redshank, curlew sandpiper and common, wood and green sandpipers. Besides Bewick's swan and flocks of white-fronted geese, large waterfowl regularly present in the reserve in winter include the Brant goose, pink-footed goose, barnacle goose and Taiga bean goose. The swans tend to fly off in the day and return to feed in the late afternoon, and another spectacular sight at the end of winter afternoons is the arrival of large flocks of starlings. Smaller wildfowl present in winter include wigeon, Eurasian teal, common pochard, northern pintail, water rail, dunlin, redshank, curlew, golden plover, snipe and ruff.
Before the establishment of the WWT reserve at Slimbridge, no Bewick's swans were regularly wintering on the Severn Estuary. In 1948, one arrived at Slimbridge, perhaps attracted by a captive whistling swan. A mate for this bird was acquired from the Netherlands and the pair eventually successfully bred. More wild Bewick's swans joined the group so that by 1964, more than thirty wild swans were present. So that the birds could be better studied, the tame resident swans were relocated to an easily-observable lake. Peter Scott realised that every bird had a unique patterning of black and yellow on its beak by which individual birds could be recognised. These were recorded in small paintings with front and side views (rather like "mug shots") to aid recognition. By 1989, over six thousand swans had been recorded visiting the site, and by this means, much research was made possible on the birds.
An early success story in the 1950s was the saving of the nene (or Hawaiian goose) from extinction. Birds were brought to the site and breeding at Slimbridge was successful. Initial releases into the wild in Hawaii were a failure however, because the Nene's natural habitat was not protected from the predators that had been introduced to the islands by man. Once that problem was alleviated, successful reintroduction became possible. There are still Nene geese at Slimbridge today.
During Princess Elizabeth's 1950 tour of Canada, she was promised a Dominion gift of Trumpeter swans, by arrangement of British conservationist Peter Scott who was head of the Severn Wildlife Trust in Britain (now the WWT). Canadian officials discovered the only swans tame enough to capture were at Lonesome Lake in British Columbia as they had been fed for decades by conservationist Ralph Edwards. In 1952, with the help of Ralph and his daughter Trudy, five were captured and flown to England, the first time trumpeter swans had ever flown across the Atlantic (although in the 19th century swans had been brought by ship to European zoos). One later died, and the remaining four thrived at WWT Slimbridge.
Slimbridge has also been involved in trying to increase population levels of common cranes, which had bred spasmodically in Britain since the late 1970s. A specially built "Crane School" is used where the young birds are taught to forage and avoid danger. This project has led to 23 birds being released onto the Somerset Moors and Levels in September 2013, and 93 being released by the end of 2015.
The Sloane Observation Tower gives far-reaching views to the Cotswold escarpment in the east and the River Severn and Forest of Dean in the West. The centre has a shop, restaurant, art gallery and tropical house, and exhibitions are held in the "Discovery Centre". There are a number of hides that visitors can use for bird watching, as well as comfortable observatories.
Slimbridge in July, looking to the main buildings and Sloane Observation Tower. The majority of the birds are mute swans
Mandarin duck at WWT Slimbridge
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- Bell, Catharine E. (2001). Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos. Taylor & Francis. p. 1331. ISBN 978-1-57958-174-9.
- "WWT Consulting". Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (Consulting) Ltd. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "Royal support for drains that "work with nature"". Latest from WWT. WWT. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
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- Tipling, David (2006). Where to Watch Birds in Britain and Ireland: Slimbridge. New Holland Publishers. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-1-84537-459-4.
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- Bell, Catharine E. (2001). Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1186–1187. ISBN 978-1-57958-174-9.
- Kear, Janet; Berger, A.J (2010). The Hawaiian Goose. A&C Black. pp. 79–114. ISBN 978-1-4081-3758-1.
- Leland Stowe (1957). Crusoe of Lonesome Lake, Victor Gollancz, Ltd, London, 1958. Chapter 14: "The Saga of the Trumpeter Swans", pg.162-178.
- "Cranes fighting fit and ready for release". Birdwatch. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "The Great Crane Project". Retrieved 20 August 2016.
Media related to Slimbridge at Wikimedia Commons