Waitaki (New Zealand electorate)

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Waitaki electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Waitaki is an electorate for the New Zealand House of Representatives that crosses the boundary of North Otago and South Canterbury towns on the East Coast of the South Island. The electorate was first established for the 1871 election that determined the 5th New Zealand Parliament. It has been abolished and re-established several times and in its early years was a two-member electorate for two parliamentary terms. The current electorate has existed since the 2008 election and is held by Jacqui Dean of the National Party.

Population centres[edit]

Through an amendment in the Electoral Act in 1965, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, an increase of one since the 1962 electoral redistribution.[1] It was accepted that through the more rapid population growth in the North Island, the number of its electorates would continue to increase, and to keep proportionality, three new electorates were allowed for in the 1967 electoral redistribution for the next election.[2] In the North Island, five electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted while three electorates were abolished.[3] In the South Island, three electorates were newly created and one electorate was reconstituted while three electorates were abolished (including Waitaki).[4] The overall effect of the required changes was highly disruptive to existing electorates, with all but three electorates having their boundaries altered.[5] These changes came into effect with the 1969 election.[2]

This current Waitaki electorate is the successor to parts of the old Otago electorate, with parts of central Otago moving into Clutha-Southland, and the boundary extended far up the South Canterbury coast, to just outside Timaru. The electorate was last re-established for the 2008 election. The 2006 census of population and dwellings showed that there has been a general northwards population movement. Even though the number of South Island electorates is fixed, the decline in the population of electorates from Rakaia south has resulted in the boundaries of electorates from Invercargill north to Rakaia shifting northwards. However, Waitaki ended up over quota in the 2013 census and redistribution resulted in all communities south of and including Herbert being ceded to Dunedin North.[6]

The largest town in the electorate is Oamaru (pop. 13,850). Other towns include Geraldine (2,460), Twizel (1,230), Wanaka (7,850), Waimate (2,920), Cromwell (4,670) and Alexandra (5,300).

History[edit]

The Waitaki electorate has existed four times: in 1871 to 1946;[7] in 1957 to 1969; in 1978 to 1996 and lastly since 2008.

The first election in the electorate was contested by William Steward and Macassey in 1871, with Steward being successful.[8]

The next election was held in early January 1876. Waitaki had become a two-member electorate, and four candidates put their names forward. Steward and Joseph O'Meagher contested the election as abolitionists (i.e. they were in favour of abolishing the provincial government), while Thomas William Hislop and Samuel Shrimski were provincialists (i.e. they favoured the retention of provincial government).[9] The provincialists won the election by quite some margin.[10]

Hislop and Shrimski were both confirmed in the 1879 election,[11] but Hislop resigned on 28 April 1880 "for private reasons".[12][13] The resulting 1880 by-election was won by George Jones.[14]

From 1881 onwards, the electorate became a single-member constituency again.[7] Thomas Young Duncan won the 1881 election and the two subsequent elections.[15] In the 1887 election, Duncan was opposed by John Reid,[16] but defeated him by 705 to 676 votes.[17] In the 1890 election, Duncan successfully contested the Oamaru electorate instead,[18] with John McKenzie taking Waitaki. McKenzie had previously held Waihemo and went back to that electorate again for the 1893 election.[19]

William Steward, who was the first representative of the electorate, had since 1881 represented Waimate. He returned to Waitaki for the 1893 election, was successful and also won the five subsequent elections. He held the electorate until 1911. He was appointed to the Legislative Council in the following year, but died within months of the appointment.[20]

Francis Henry Smith succeeded Steward in the 1911 election. At the next election in 1914, Smith stood unsuccessfully in the Timaru electorate. The Waitaki electorate was won by John Anstey that year. At the 1919 election, Anstey was defeated by John Bitchener, who held Waitaki until he was defeated in the 1935 election by David Barnes. Barnes, in turn, held the electorate for one parliamentary term and was defeated in the 1938 election by David Campbell Kidd. At the final count, Kidd had a majority of 10 votes, and Barnes applied for a magisterial recount; this increased the 1938 result to a majority of 14 votes.[21] Kidd represented Waitaki until 1946, when the electorate was abolished and he successfully stood in Waimate instead.

Waitaki was re-established for the 1957 election and was won by Thomas Hayman, who had previously represented Oamaru. Hayman died in office on 2 January 1962 and was succeeded by Allan Dick, who won the 1962 by-election. Dick held the electorate until 1969, when it was abolished again.

The electorate was re-established for the 1978 general election. Jonathan Elworthy of the National Party was the successful candidate. Elworthy was re-elected in the 1981 general election, but defeated in the 1984 general election by Labour's Jim Sutton. Sutton was re-elected in the 1987 general election, but lost to National's Alec Neill in the 1990 general election. Neill was re-elected in the 1993 general election. At the end of the next term, in 1996, the electorate was abolished again. Neill failed to be selected by the National Party as a candidate for any of the electorates for the 1996 general election.

With the advent of Mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) voting system in 1996 and the resulting reduction in the number of constituencies, the electorate was split in half; the town of Oamaru was pulled into the resized Otago electorate and the balance was transferred into the new Aoraki electorate.

The Waitaki electorate was re-established for the 2008 election, and Jacqui Dean, incumbent since the 2005 election in the Otago electorate won the election with a large majority against Labour's David Parker.[22] Dean increased her majority in the 2011 election against Labour's Barry Monks.[23] Dean was confirmed as the electorate's representative in the 2014 election.[24]

Members of parliament[edit]

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Reform  
 Labour    National  

single-member electorate[edit]

Election Winner
1871 election William Steward

multi-member electorate[edit]

Election Winners
1876 election Samuel Shrimski Thomas Hislop
1879 election
1880 by-election George Jones

single-member electorate[edit]

Election Winner
1881 election Thomas Duncan
1884 election
1887 election
1890 election John McKenzie
1893 election William Steward
1896 election
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election Francis Smith
1914 election John Anstey
1919 election John Bitchener
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election David Barnes
1938 election David Kidd
1943 election
(electorate abolished 1946-1957)
1957 election Thomas Hayman
1960 election
1962 by-election Allan Dick
1963 election
1966 election
(electorate abolished 1969-1978)
1978 election Jonathan Elworthy
1981 election
1984 election Jim Sutton
1987 election
1990 election Alec Neill
1993 election
(electorate abolished 1996-2008)
2008 election Jacqui Dean
2011 election
2014 election

List MPs[edit]

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Waitaki electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Members
2008 election David Parker

Election results[edit]

2014 election[edit]

General election, 2014: Waitaki[25]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Green tickY Jacqui Dean 24,547 62.23 +0.78 22,656 56.97 +1.68
Labour Glenda Alexander 7,879 19.97 -4.05 7,162 18.01 -3.41
Green Sue Coutts 4,878 12.37 +2.23 4,386 11.02 -0.88
Conservative Donald Aubrey 1,417 3.59 +1.58 1,741 4.38 +1.53
Democrats Hessel van Wieren 253 0.64 +0.18 86 0.21 +0.02
NZ First   2,763 6.95 +1.73
Legalise Cannabis   208 0.52 -0.05
Internet Mana   159 0.40 +0.27
Ban 1080   143 0.36 +0.36
ACT   106 0.27 -0.85
Māori   104 0.26 -0.09
United Future   94 0.24 -0.58
Civilian   16 0.04 +0.04
Independent Coalition   10 0.03 +0.03
Focus   5 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 471 130
Total Valid votes 39,445 39,769
National hold Majority 16,668 42.26 +4.87

2011 election[edit]

General election, 2011: Waitaki[26]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Green tickY Jacqui Dean 23,219 61.45 +1.31 21,309 55.29 +3.92
Labour Barry Monks 9,076 24.02 -8.05 8,257 21.42 -8.65
Green Sue Coutts 3,830 10.14 +5.26 4,587 11.90 +4.89
Conservative Jesse Misa 760 2.01 +2.01 1,100 2.85 +2.85
Independent David Ford 531 1.41
ACT Colin Nicholls 198 0.52 -0.79 432 1.12 -2.48
Democrats Hessel van Wieren 172 0.46 +0.10 74 0.19 +0.08
NZ First   2,010 5.22 +1.58
United Future   317 0.82 +0.12
Legalise Cannabis   218 0.57 +0.13
Māori   136 0.35 -0.15
Mana   52 0.13 +0.13
Libertarianz   26 0.07 +0.03
Alliance   23 0.06 -0.07
Informal votes 883 338
Total Valid votes 37,786 38,541
National hold Majority 14,143 37.43 +9.36

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 49,508[27]

2008 election[edit]

General election, 2008: Waitaki[28]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Green tickY Jacqui Dean 23,649 60.13 20,426 51.37
Labour David Parker 12,610 32.06 11,960 30.08
Green Oliver Briggs 1,916 4.87 2,787 7.01
ACT John Fraser 516 1.31 1,432 3.60
Progressive Claire Main 333 0.85 382 0.96
Democrats Hessel Van Wieren 140 0.36 44 0.11
Alliance Norman MacRitchie 93 0.24 53 0.13
Direct Democracy Simon Guy 70 0.18
NZ First   1,447 3.64
United Future   280 0.70
Bill and Ben   263 0.66
Māori   199 0.50
Kiwi   180 0.45
Legalise Cannabis   173 0.44
Family Party   87 0.22
Libertarianz   15 0.04
Workers Party   15 0.04
Pacific   14 0.04
RONZ   5 0.01
RAM   1 0.003
Informal votes 361 185
Total Valid votes 39,327 39,763
National win new seat Majority 11,039 28.07

1962 by-election[edit]

Waitaki by-election, 1962[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Allan Dick 6,359 45.49
Labour Sir Basil Arthur 5,957 42.61
Social Credit A W Barwood 1,664 11.90
Majority 402 2.88
Informal votes 42 0.30
Turnout 14,022 77.80
Registered electors 18,023
National hold Swing

1931 election[edit]

General election, 1931: Waitaki[30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform John Bitchener 3,892 45.80 -11.84
Labour Alexander McLean Paterson[31] 3,007 35.38
United G. S. McKenzie 1,599 18.82
Majority 885 10.41 -4.86
Informal votes 26 0.31 -2.67
Turnout 8,524 87.92 -2.27
Registered electors 9,695

1899 election[edit]

General election, 1899: Waitaki[32][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Steward 2,139 63.32 +5.49
Conservative John Campbell 712 21.08
Independent Liberal Stephen Boreham 527 15.60
Majority 1,427 42.24 +13.53
Turnout 3,378 74.59 -4.99
Registered electors 4,529

1896 election[edit]

General election, 1896: Waitaki[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Steward 999 57.83
Conservative Duncan Sutherland 1,013 29.12
Liberal Charles Vincent Clarke[35] 299 8.59
Conservative Harry R Parker 155 4.46
Majority 999 28.72
Informal votes
Registered electors 4,372[36]
Turnout 3,479 79.57

1890 election[edit]

General election, 1890: Waitaki[37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John McKenzie 708 50.53
Conservative John Channing Buckland 356 25.41
Independent George Bruce 337 24.05
Majority 352 25.12
Turnout 1,401 60.96
Registered electors 2,298

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 108, 111, 112.
  2. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 111.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 107, 111.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 108, 112.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 111f.
  6. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-477-10414-2. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 166.
  8. ^ "Waitaki District". North Otago Times. XV (597). 7 February 1871. p. 2. Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  9. ^ "Latest Telegrams". The Southland Times (2247). 27 December 1875. p. 2. Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  10. ^ "Waitaki Election. Declaration of the Poll.". North Otago Times. XXIII (1170). 12 January 1876. p. 2. Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  11. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 114, 139.
  12. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 114.
  13. ^ The Cyclopedia of New Zealand 1897, p. 83.
  14. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  15. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 194.
  16. ^ "Waitaki". The Star (6034). 16 September 1887. p. 3. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 
  17. ^ "Elections". West Coast Times (6608). 28 September 1887. p. 2. Retrieved 19 May 2012. 
  18. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 104.
  19. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 123.
  20. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 86, 140.
  21. ^ "Waitaki Seat". Auckland Star. LXIX (260). 3 November 1938. p. 5. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "Jacqui Dean wins rejigged Waitaki seat in a landslide". The Southland Times. 9 November 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  23. ^ Bruce, David (28 November 2011). "Dean has eye on Cabinet post". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  24. ^ "Latest results: Waitaki". Otago Daily Times. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  25. ^ 2014 election results
  26. ^ 2011 election results
  27. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  28. ^ 2008 election results
  29. ^ Norton 1988, p. 377.
  30. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  31. ^ Facer, Wayne Arthur Pickard (2012). "In New Zealand: Timaru 1923–1925". William Jellie: Unitarian, Scholar and Educator (PDF) (M.Phil.). Massey University. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  32. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  33. ^ "Waitaki Electoral District". The Timaru Herald. LXII (3123). 1 December 1899. p. 1. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  34. ^ "Electoral District of Waitaki". The Oamaru Mail. XXI (6764). 11 December 1896. p. 3. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  35. ^ "Waitaki Electoral District". The Oamaru Mail. XXI (6750). 11 December 1896. p. 3. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  36. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 64.
  37. ^ "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 

References[edit]