Wakefulness-promoting agent

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A wakefulness-promoting agent (or wakefulness-promoting drug), also known as a eugeroic (originally "eugrégorique" or "eugregoric"),[1] is a type of drug which specifically improves wakefulness and alertness.[2][3] They are used mainly in the treatment of sleeping disorders, excessive daytime sleepiness and narcolepsy.[2][3] They are also used to counteract fatigue and lethargy and to increase motivation and productivity.[medical citation needed] Wakefulness-promoting agents are said to have a low or very low addictive potential.[2][3]

The prototypical eugeroic is modafinil, and other drugs include adrafinil and armodafinil. Modafinil and armodafinil have been found to act as selective, weak, atypical dopamine reuptake inhibitors.[2][3] Adrafinil is a prodrug of modafinil, and hence also acts in this way.

The functional opposites of wakefulness-promoting agents are hypnotics, such as centrally-acting antihistamines (H1 receptor antagonists) and suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist.

Examples[edit]

The chemical structure of modafinil, the prototypical drug of this class.

Marketed[edit]

Discontinued[edit]

Never marketed[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Milgram, Norton W.; Callahan, Heather; Siwak, Christina (2006). "Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent". CNS Drug Reviews. 5 (3): 193–212. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.1999.tb00100.x. ISSN 1080-563X. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Provigil: Prescribing information" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Cephalon, Inc. January 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Nuvigil: Prescribing information" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Cephalon, Inc. April 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.