Waldo (Goronwy) Williams (30 September 1904 – 20 May 1971) was one of the leading Welsh language poets of the twentieth century. He was also a notable Christian pacifist, anti-war campaigner, and Welsh nationalist.
Williams was born in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. Wales. His father, a primary school teacher from Pembrokeshire, spoke Welsh and his mother spoke English. In his early years he himself spoke only English.
In 1911 his father was appointed headteacher of the primary school at Mynachlog-ddu, Pembrokeshire. and it was there that Waldo Williams learnt to speak Welsh. In 1915 Williams's father moved to be headteacher of Brynconin School, the primary school at Llandissilio, Pembrokeshire.
After attending the Grammar School at Narberth, Pembrokeshire, he studied at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth where he graduated in English in 1926. Afterwards he trained as a teacher and worked in various schools in Pembrokeshire, the rest of Wales and England, including Kimbolton School, Huntingdonshire. He also taught night classes organised by the Department of Extra-Mural Studies, the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth.
Williams married Linda Llewellyn in 1941, but she died in 1943, and he did not remarry.
He left the Welsh Baptist Church to join the Quakers during the 1950s.
During the Korean War he refused to pay his income tax on pacifist grounds. He continued his protest until the ending of compulsory military service in 1963. During his campaigning he was sent to prison.
He died in 1971 at St. Thomas's Hospital, Haverfordwest, and is buried at Blaenconin Chapel burial ground in Llandissilio.
Williams belonged, first of all, to the Welsh tradition of the bardd gwlad (=folk poet), a poet who served his locality by celebrating its life and people in verse.
But he was also a poet inspired by the mystic revelation he had as a youth about the unity of the whole of humankind. This revelation was realised in the cooperative and harmonious living he witnessed amongst the farming communities in the Preseli Hills and reflected in feelings of belonging, knowing, and a desire that people should live together in peace – constant themes in his poetry. It inspired some of his greatest poetry, including Mewn dau gae (=In two fields) (1956), perhaps his greatest poem of all, which celebrates the very moment of this revelation.
Other well-known poems by Williams include Cofio (=Remembering) (before 1936), Y tangnefeddwyr (=The peacemakers) (1941), Preseli (1946), and Pa beth yw dyn? (=What is it to be human?) (1952).
Important events in Williams's life
- 1911 - Moves to Mynachlog-ddu when his father becomes headteacher of primary school.
- 1915 - Moves to Llandysilio, Pembrokeshire, when his father is appointed headteacher of primary school.
- 1917 - Attends grammar school at Narberth.
- 1923 - Begins study at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth.
- 1926 - Graduates in English and trains as a teacher.
- 1928 - Begins to teach in at various primary schools in Pembrokeshire.
- 1936 - Publication of Cerddi'r plant (=Poems for children)
- 1941 - Marries Linda Llewellyn.
- 1942 - Moves from Pembrokeshire to teach in north-west Wales.
- 1943 - Linda Llewellyn dies.
- 1944 - Moves to teach at Kimbolton School.
- 1946 - Moves to Lyneham, Wiltshire.
- 1949 - Returns to Wales.
- 1950 - The Korean War; resigns from teaching to begin protest of non-payment of income tax against the war. Protest continues after the war until the end of compulsory military service in 1963.
- 1953 - Leaves the Baptist church to join the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers.
- 1956 - Publication of Dail pren (=The leaves of the tree).
- 1959 - Stands as the Plaid Cymru candidate in the Pembrokeshire constituency at the General Election.
- 1960 - Imprisoned for six weeks for non-payment of income tax.
- 1961 - Imprisoned for a further period for non-payment of income tax.
- 1963 - Resumes teaching at various primary schools in Pembrokeshire.
Waldo Williams memorial, Rhos-fach, Mynachlog-ddu.
Dail pren (=The leaves of the tree), 1956, was the only volume of poetry published by Williams during his lifetime. A new edition was published in 1991 by Gwasg Gomer, ISBN.
Cerddi Waldo Williams (=The poems of Waldo Williams), 1992, a selection of his poetry edited by J. E. Caerwyn Williams.
Waldo Williams: rhyddiaith (=Waldo Williams: prose), 2001, a selection of his prose writings edited by Damian Walford Davies. Includes writing in both Welsh and English.
Cerddi'r plant (=Poems for children), 1936, a volume of poetry including the work of Williams and E. Llwyd Williams.
The old farmhouse, 1961, Williams's translation of Yr hen dy ffarm by D. J. Williams (1953).
Translations of his work
- UK General Election results October 1959 website, http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/area/uk/ge59/ge59index.htm, Accessed 2007-08-18
- English-language sources
- Nicholas, James (1975). Waldo Williams. Cardiff : University of Wales Press. A general introduction to Williams's life and work.
- Williams, Waldo (1997). The peacemakers : selected poems. Translated by Tony Conran. Llandysul : Gomer. ISBN. Includes an introduction to Williams's life and work by Tony Conran.
- Welsh-language sources
- Davies, Damien Walford (2001). Waldo Williams : rhyddiaith. Caerdydd : Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru. ISBN. Includes critical introductions and notes to the texts. Includes both his Welsh-language and English-language prose.
- Nicholas, James (Ed.) (1977). Waldo : cyfrol deyrnged i Waldo Williams. Llandysul : Gwasg Gomer. A collection of articles about Williams's life and work.
- Rhys, Robert (Ed.) (1981). Waldo Williams. Cyfres y meistri. Abertawe : Gwasg Christopher Davies. ISBN. A collection of articles about Williams's life and work.
- Rhys, Robert (1992). Chwilio am nodau'r gân : astudiaeth o yrfa lenyddol Waldo Williams hyd at 1939. Llandysul : Gwasg Gomer. ISBN. A study of Williams's literary career until 1939. An appendix includes a significant collection of his early poems not published in Dail pren.
- Thomas, Ned (1985). Waldo. Llên y llenor. Caernarfon : Gwasg Pantycelyn. A general introduction to Williams's life and poetry.
- Information and pictures of Williams from the Puncheston School website. Williams was a teacher at the school.
- Listen to Williams's voice on the BBC Wales Cymru ar yr awyr website. This site is in Welsh.