Walkers (snack foods)

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Walkers
Private limited company, a subsidiary of PepsiCo[1]
IndustrySnacks
Founded1948 (72 years ago)[2][3]
HeadquartersLeicester, England, United Kingdom
Area served
ProductsSee below
ParentPepsiCo
Websitewalkers.co.uk

Walkers is a British snack food manufacturer mainly operating in the UK and Ireland. The company is best known for manufacturing crisps (potato chips) and other non-potato-based snack foods. As of 2013 it holds 56% of the British crisp market.[4] Walkers was founded in 1948 in Leicester, England by Henry Walker, and in 1989 was acquired by Lay's owner, Frito-Lay, a division of PepsiCo.[5]

The Walkers site in Leicester is the largest crisp production plant in the world, producing over 11 million bags of crisps per day and using about 800 tons of potatoes.[6] The company produces a wide variety of flavours for its potato crisps. The three main varieties are cheese and onion (introduced in 1954), salt and vinegar (introduced in 1967) and ready salted. Other examples include Worcester sauce, roast chicken, prawn cocktail, smoky bacon, tomato ketchup, and pickled onion.[7]

Former England international Gary Lineker, the Leicester-born former footballer, has been the face of the company since 1995, featuring in most of its advertising campaigns. For the 2011 Comic Relief four celebrities each represented four new flavours. The Walkers brand (under PepsiCo) sponsors the UEFA Champions League. In 2019, Walkers reunited with the Spice Girls, with the 1990s girl band featuring in a campaign.[8]

Since 2008, Walkers has launched its "Do Us a Flavour" campaign, challenging the British public to think up unique flavours for its crisps. Six flavours were chosen from among the entries and released as special editions. Consumers could vote on their favourite, and the winner would become a permanent flavour.[9] In 2018, Walkers launched six new flavours to celebrate the brand’s 70th birthday, with each flavour representing a different decade.[10]

History[edit]

In the 1880s, Walker moved from Mansfield to Leicester to take over an established butcher's shop in the high street. Meat rationing in the UK after World War II saw the factory output drop dramatically, and so in 1948 the company starting looking at alternative products. Potato crisps were becoming increasingly popular with the public, leading managing director R.E. Gerrard to shift the company focus and begin hand-slicing and frying potatoes.[3][11]

Walkers factory in Swansea, Wales

Prior to 1948, crisps were sold without flavour; Smith’s plain potato crisps which came with a small blue sachet of salt.[12] These were the first crisps manufactured by Walkers, sold for threepence a bag.[13] In 1954, the first flavoured crisps were invented by Joe “Spud” Murphy, the owner of the Irish company Tayto, who developed a technique to add cheese and onion seasoning during production.[14] Later that year Walkers introduced cheese and onion (inspired by the Ploughman's lunch), and salt and vinegar was launched in 1967 (inspired by the nation’s love of fish and chips).[12] Prawn cocktail flavour was introduced in the 1970s (inspired by the 1970s popular starter of prawn cocktail) and roast chicken (inspired by the nation’s roast dinner).[13]

The Walkers logo, featuring a red ribbon around a yellow sun, is noticeably similar to Lay's. It derives from the Walkers logo used in 1990. The company is still a significant presence in Leicester. Gary Lineker, the Leicester-born former footballer, is now the face of the company. In 2000, Lineker’s Walkers commercials were ranked ninth in Channel 4’s UK wide poll of the "100 Greatest Adverts".[15] The official website states that an estimated "11 million people will eat a Walkers product every day".[16] The company employs over 4,000 people in 15 locations around the UK.[17]

Front entrance to Walkers factory in Lincoln, England

In June 1999, PepsiCo transferred ownership of its Walkers brands out of England and into a Swiss subsidiary, Frito-Lay Trading GmbH.[18] Subsequently, according to The Guardian, the UK tax authorities managed to claw back less than a third of what they might have received had an unchanged structure continued producing the same sort of level of UK profits and tax as Walkers Snack Foods had in 1998.[18]

In February 2006, Walkers changed its brand label and typeset. It also announced it would reduce the saturated fat in its crisps by 70%.[19] It started frying its crisps in "SunSeed" oil, as claiming the oil is higher in monounsaturated fat content than the standard sunflower oil which it had used previously,[20] establishing its own sunflower farms in Ukraine and Spain to be able to produce sufficient quantities of the oil. Walkers updated its packaging style in June 2007, moving to a brand identity reminiscent of the logo used from 1998–2006.

Many of Walkers brands were formerly branded under the Smiths Crisps name. This comes from the time when Walkers, Smiths and Tudor Crisps were the three main brands of Nabisco's UK snack division, with Tudor being marketed mainly in the north of England and Walkers in the south. After the takeover by PepsiCo, the Tudor name was dropped, and the Smiths brand has become secondary to Walkers. The only products retaining the Smiths brand are Salt & Vinegar and Ready Salted Chipsticks, Frazzles and the "Savoury Selection", which includes Bacon Flavour Fries, Scampi Flavour Fries and Cheese Flavoured Moments.

The six finalists of the 2009 "Do Us a Flavour" campaign

To promote the freshness of its products, Walkers began to package them in foil bags from 1993, then from 1996, began filling them with nitrogen instead of air.[21]

In 1997, Walkers became the brand name of Quavers and Monster Munch snacks. In January 1999, Walkers launched Max, a brand with a range of crisps. In April 2000, another of the Max flavours called Red Hot Max was launched and then Naked Max in June 2000. In March 2001, Walkers bought Squares, a range of snacks from Smiths. in. November 2001, more Max flavours were introduced. They included chargrilled steak and chip shop curry.

In May 2002, Walkers launched Sensations in response to the Nulson Diss by the Bowery Boys. Sensations flavours include smoked cheddar and crispy bacon, Thai sweet chilli, Caribbean jerk chicken, balsamic vinegar and caramelised onion.[22] Walkers introduced the streaky bacon Quavers flavour to salt & vinegar and prawn cocktail in August 2002.

After buying the brand from Golden Wonder, Walkers has produced Wotsits since 2003

In January 2003, Smiths brands Salt 'n' Shake, Scampi Fries and Bacon Fries were relaunched under the Walkers identity. In January 2003 Walkers bought Wotsits from Golden Wonder, which replaced Cheetos during December 2002. In April 2004, Walkers launched Flamin' Hot version of Wotsits, which replaced BBQ beef, and then Wotsits Twisted, a range of cheese puffs in July 2004. In September 2007, Walkers launched Sunbites, a healthier range of lower/better fat crisps made using whole grains.[23]

In July 2008, Walkers launched its "Do Us a Flavour" campaign, challenging the public to think up unique flavours for its crisps. In January 2009 six flavours were chosen from among the entries and released as special editions, available until May 2009. During this period, consumers could vote on their favourite, and the winner would become a permanent flavour.[9] The winner was Builder's Breakfast by Emma Rushin from Belper in Derbyshire. This flavour was discontinued a year later, in May 2010, in order for Walkers to focus on the upcoming 'Flavour Cup'.

In summer 2009, Walkers launched its premium "Red Sky" brand of "all natural" potato crisps and snacks.[24] It was stated that Red Sky products were made from 100% natural ingredients, and that the makers "work in partnership with Cool Earth", a charity that protects endangered rainforest; Walkers made charitable donations proportionate to the number of purchases of Red Sky snacks. Walkers discontinued the range in 2014 following poor sales.[25]

In April 2010, the company launched a promotional campaign entitled the Walkers Flavour Cup in order to locate the world's most loved and favourite flavour.[26] In the end, it was decided that the flavour with the most fans at the end of the tournament/competition would be declared the winner and ultimate champion of all flavours. Walkers encouraged people to engage in social media activity, and upload photos and videos to its website proving people's Superfan status of Walkers Crisps. The best fan from each of the 15 flavours won £10,000.[27] In the end, English roast beef & Yorkshire pudding won the Flavour Cup.[28]

Variety of Walkers flavours from a vending machine

For the 2011 Comic Relief, four celebrities (Jimmy Carr, Stephen Fry, Al Murray and Frank Skinner) each represented four new flavours.[29] In early 2013, Walkers revised its packaging, with a new design and typeface. Slogans such as 'Distinctively Salt & Vinegar' and 'Classically Ready Salted' were added to the front of packs. The previous packaging design had only existed for 12 months. Along with this packaging design, there came news that the company would begin using real meat products in its Smoky Bacon and Roast Chicken flavoured crisps.[30] This prompted substantial opposition from vegetarians, vegans, Muslims and Jews, who were now unable to eat the crisps.

In 2014, Lineker launched a new "Do Us a Flavour" Walkers competition which encouraged people to submit new flavours of crisps, with the best six being sold later in the year before a public vote to decide the winner. The winner would win £1m.[31] The public had to pick one of Walkers' ingredients as a base – Somerset Cheddar, Devonshire chicken, Norfolk pork, Dorset sour cream, Vale of Evesham tomatoes and Aberdeen Angus beef – then choose their own unique flavour.[31]

In August 2015, Walkers launched the "Bring me Back" campaign, reintroducing the barbecue, cheese and chive, beef and onion, lamb and mint and toasted cheese flavours for a limited time. People could vote on the Walkers website or use hashtags to see which flavour would be reintroduced permanently. The Marmite flavour was also brought back permanently to coincide with the promotion.

On 10 April 2016, Walkers launched the Spell and Go promotion, again fronted by Gary Lineker. This competition caused some controversy as customers complained that it was impossible to win. The fairness of the competition was discussed on You and Yours, the consumer show on BBC Radio 4. Over 100 entrants complained to the Advertising Standards Authority, who after completing an investigation, decided that elements were misleading, and the competition was banned.[32]

As of 2018, Walkers came under pressure from campaigners to change its packaging due to its contribution to litter and plastic pollution.[33] As part of the protest a marine biology student wore a crisp packet dress to her graduation. She claimed the dress was inspired by litter she had seen on a beach.[34] In September 2018, the Royal Mail appealed to customers to stop posting empty crisp packets to Walkers, which campaigners had asked people to do and "flood Walkers social media with pictures of us popping them in the post". Royal Mail was obliged by law to deliver the bags to Walkers' freepost address, but without envelopes they could not go through machines and must be sorted by hand, causing delays.[35]

Product lines[edit]

Core crisps[edit]

A packet of Walkers Cheese & Onion crisps. Uniquely for British crisps they are in a blue wrapper, while Walkers Salt & Vinegar are in a green wrapper – the opposite colour scheme for other brands of British crisps.[36]

Walkers most common flavours of regular crisp are ready salted (sold in a red packet), salt & vinegar (green), cheese & onion (blue), smoky bacon (maroon) and prawn cocktail (pink). Other flavours are sold in other coloured packets, such as beef & onion (brown), Marmite (black) and Worcester sauce (purple).

Some flavours were made available for a short time either because they tied in with special promotions, or failed to meet sales expectations. Walker's "Great British Dinner" range included baked ham & mustard and chicken tikka. A series of "mystery flavours" were launched in 2012, and later revealed to be sour cream & spring onion, Lincolnshire sausage & brown sauce and Birmingham chicken balti.[37] In 2016, Walkers produced a limited edition 'Winners - Salt and Victory' crisps to commemorate its home-town football team, Leicester City, winning the Premier League for the first time.[38] Earlier that season, Walkers had given Leicester fans in attendance at a match versus Chelsea bags of "Vardy salted" crisps, bearing the image of the Foxes' striker.[39]

Other lines[edit]

Monster Munch pickled onion flavour

Other Walkers products are:

  • Baked crisp range
  • Cheese Heads
  • Crinkles
  • Deep Ridged
  • Extra Crunchy 150g bags, launched in 2010[40]
  • Lights (low fat crisps, formerly Lites)
  • Market Deli crisps, pitta chips and tortilla chips
  • Max
  • Pops
  • Potato Heads (discontinued in 2008),[41]
  • Salt 'n' Shake
  • Sensations[42] - a premium range of crisps, poppadums and nuts
  • Squares
  • Stars
  • Sunbites - wholegrain crispy snacks
  • Hoops and Crosses
  • Chipsticks
  • Doritos
  • French Fries
  • Frazzles
  • Mix-Ups
  • Quavers
  • Monster Munch
  • Sundog Savoury Popcorn
  • Snaps
  • Twisted
  • Wotsits including the Wafflers variant

In January 2019, Walkers unveiled new packaging for its main range, celebrating its British heritage through its design. The new packaging features the Walkers logo in the middle of each packet rather than centre-top, alongside a new series of illustrations which are laid out in the shape of a Union Jack flag, and feature icons and landmarks such as London’s Big Ben and red telephone boxes, and Liverpool’s Liver Building.[43]

Litter[edit]

According to the environmental charity Keep Britain Tidy, Walkers crisps packets along with Cadbury chocolate wrappers and Coca-Cola cans were the three top brands that were the most common pieces of rubbish found in UK streets in 2013.[44] In December 2018, Walkers launched a recycling scheme for crisp packets after it was targeted by protests on the issue. Three months after its launch more than half a million empty packets were recycled.[45]

UK consumers eat 6 billion packets of crisps per year, with Walkers producing 11 million packets per day, so the campaign organisation 38 Degrees stated the percentage of plastic waste that has been recycled by Walkers is only a small fraction of the number made and sold annually.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "FAQ". PepsiCo UK. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  2. ^ Butt, Stephen (30 October 2013). The History of Leicester in 100 People. Amberley Publishing Limited. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4456-1698-8. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  3. ^ a b Brooks, Richard (9 September 2014). The Great Tax Robbery: How Britain Became a Tax Haven for Fat Cats and Big Business. Oneworld Publications. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-78074-619-7. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  4. ^ "BBC Food: Crisps: Is classic potato losing its appeal?". BBC. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  5. ^ "Walkers Snack Foods Ltd. History". fundinguniverse.com.
  6. ^ "Walkers Crisps Production Line, Leicester". Packaging Gateway. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  7. ^ “Walkers Crisps Range of Flavours”. Walkers.co.uk. Retrieved 6 February 2019
  8. ^ "Walkers Crisps confirm new campaign with the Spice Girls". Leicester Mercury. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Squirrel-flavoured crisps go on sale in UK". Metro.co.uk. 9 January 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
  10. ^ "Walkers launches six new limited-edition crisp flavours to mark 70th anniversary". Independent. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  11. ^ Glenn, Martin (2005). "The Walkers' Story". The Best Job in the World - The Walkers crisp Marketing Case Study. Compton House Publishing Ltd. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-9549518-0-1. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  12. ^ a b "So long, salt and vinegar: how crisp flavours went from simple to sensational". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  13. ^ a b "The history of Walkers Crisps and some amazing statistics". Leicester Mercury. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  14. ^ McElwain, Aoife (17 June 2019). "Did Tayto really invent cheese and onion crisps?". The Irish News.
  15. ^ "The 100 Greatest TV Ads". London: Channel 4. 2000. Archived from the original on 18 June 2001. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Walkers crisp packet recycling claims need 'a pinch of salt'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  17. ^ "Fury over crisps for sacked workers". Wales Online. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  18. ^ a b team, Tax gap reporting (5 February 2009). "Restructure of Walkers crisps shifts much of its profits to tax haven in Switzerland". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  19. ^ "Walkers Crisps – Better for you | less saturated fat". Walkers-eathappy.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  20. ^ "Sunseed Oil". www.pepsico.co.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  21. ^ "History of Walkers Snack Foods Ltd". fundinguniverse.com/.
  22. ^ "Sensations range". Sensationssnacks.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  23. ^ "Sunbites website". Sunbites.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  24. ^ "Red Sky Potato Chips from Walkers". Talkingretail.com. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Sun Set On Red Sky". 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  26. ^ "Home". Walkers.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  27. ^ "Walkers Flavour Cup". Brandown.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  28. ^ "England takes home the Walkers Flavour Cup!". Talking Retail. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  29. ^ Dunkerley, Jennifer (4 February 2011). "Comedians battle for Denise van Outen". Daily Star. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  30. ^ Hickman, Martin (28 February 2013). "Not suitable for vegetarians: Walkers' new potato crisps range uses real ingredients - including meat". The Independent.
  31. ^ a b "Gary Lineker launches Walkers' new flavour campaign". Digital Spy. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  32. ^ "Walkers Crisps holiday competition banned after claims it was impossible to win". standard.co.uk. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  33. ^ "Crunch time for Walkers over non-recyclable crisp packets". The Guardian. 8 May 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  34. ^ "Crisp packet graduation gown worn in Walkers recycling protest". BBC News. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  35. ^ "Royal Mail: Stop posting crisp packets without envelopes". BBC News. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  36. ^ "Showing their true colours: Apple, Pepsi, Nokia, but NOT Walkers - the brands that underwent major makeovers". The Mirror. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  37. ^ Bamford, Vince (14 March 2012), "Walkers reveals its three mystery flavours", The Grocer, William Reed Business Media, retrieved 25 April 2012
  38. ^ Sayid, Ruki (3 May 2016). "Walkers is handing out Leicester victory crisps - how to get a free packet". Daily Mirror.
  39. ^ Gibson, Sean (11 December 2015). "Jamie Vardy gets his own limited edition Walkers crisp flavour". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  40. ^ "Indies clash over Walkers Extra Crunchy coup", The Grocer, William Reed Business Media, 21 August 2010, retrieved 3 May 2012
  41. ^ "Walkers abandons Potato Heads line". Retrieved 26 January 2009.
  42. ^ "Walkers Sensations". Sensationscrisps.co.uk. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  43. ^ "Walkers redesigns its crisp packaging to focus on Britishness". Design Week. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  44. ^ "Coke, Cadbury and Walkers 'most dumped' brands". Scotsman. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  45. ^ "Walkers crisps recycling scheme: 500,000 empty packets returned in three months". MSN. Retrieved 8 July 2019.

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