Walnut Hill, Illinois
Location of Walnut Hill in Marion County, Illinois.
Location of Illinois in the United States
|• Total||0.37 sq mi (0.96 km2)|
|• Land||0.37 sq mi (0.96 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||285.71/sq mi (110.45/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|Wikimedia Commons||Walnut Hill, Illinois|
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Walnut Hill was at one time the intersection of two of the main roads in Illinois: the George Rogers Clark Trace, and the Yadda Road.
The original capital of Illinois was at Kaskaskia. The overland route from Kaskaskia to the interior of the State followed the Kaskaskia/Big Muddy divide, which went through Walnut Hill. George Rogers Clark marched through Walnut Hill in February, 1779 in his march from Fort Kaskaskia to Fort Vincennes, which resulted in the conquest of Illinois by the army of Virginia.
Traces of the Kaskaskia/Vincennes road can be seen in several short stretches of road in northwestern Jefferson County, which point toward Walnut Hill, ignoring the surveyed Section boundaries. Northeast of Walnut Hill, the Kell Road is a winding, pioneer road up to its intersection with Interstate 57, from which it follows the modern Section lines to Kell.
Walnut Hill was also on the Goshen Road, an early road across Illinois, from Shawneetown to the Goshen Settlement near Glen Carbon. Remnants of the Goshen Road can be seen in short segments of pioneer road between Dix and Walnut Hill. It is possible that construction of the railroad tracks from Dix to Walnut Hill obliterated much of the original Goshen road.
In 1823, Thomas D. Minor built a road from Mt. Vernon to Walnut Hill. This was called the "Vandalia Road", in that it connected with roads to the new State capital in Vandalia. The new road joined the Goshen Road just south of Walnut Hill. Today it is called the "Old Centralia Road". The new road eventually captured much of the traffic on the Goshen Road, since it provided a shorter route across Jefferson County.
The modern road running northwest out of Walnut Hill toward Centralia is the same as the Goshen Road as shown on the original survey maps of Illinois.
William Goings Gang
In the early 19th century, William Goings also spelled Goins kept a tavern that was presumably on land homesteaded by Goings about two miles south of Walnut Hill in Jefferson County, Illinois. William Goings lead a band of robbers known as the "Goings Gang" that preyed on frontier travelers on the Vincennes-St. Louis Trace, a dirt road that was originally an old bison path that extended through southern Illinois. The gang operated a series of connected frontier taverns along this road, passing information on to gang members whenever a traveler worth robbing stopped at one of their taverns. When the unfortunate traveler reached a remote spot, the gang members would assemble and relieve them of their property.
As in other frontier areas, neighboring settlers overlooked this activity until the Goings Gang escalated to murder in 1818-1819. In response, the settlers organized a group of vigilantes or "rangers" who surprised the Goings Gang at Walnut Hills. The gang members were tied to trees, flogged, and ordered to leave the county, an order which all but one obeyed. The following year, the vigilantes returned and cropped the ears of this obstinate gang member, who may have been criminal gang leader William Goings, possibly because they believed he had no use for his ears as he would not listen and cease in his criminal activities. The tavern site of one of the reported gang members, Samuel Young of Marion County, Illinois was excavated by archaeologists working for the Illinois Department of Transportation in 1988 prior to its destruction by a highway project
Walnut Hill is located at (38.477541, -89.045513).
According to the 2010 census, Walnut Hill has a total area of 0.37 square miles (0.96 km2), all land.
Walnut Hill is located near the southern boundary of Marion County, adjacent to Jefferson County. The county boundary is the baseline of the Third Principal Meridian, also called the Centralia Baseline. The survey of this area was begun as early as 1804.
To the north of Walnut Hill is Raccoon Creek, a tributary of the Kaskaskia River. To the south is the Big Muddy River, a small creek at the northernmost limit of its watershed. Walnut Hill is thus on the Kaskaskia/Big Muddy divide. That divide is a ridge that formed a natural, pioneer highway from Sparta to Kell, perhaps properly called the "Highway to Kell".
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 109 people, 45 households, and 30 families residing in the village. The population density was 294.2 people per square mile (113.7/km²). There were 50 housing units at an average density of 134.9 per square mile (52.2/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 99.08% White and 0.92% African American.
There were 45 households out of which 48.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.8% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 28.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the village, the population was spread out with 33.0% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 11.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 67.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 58.7 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $21,250, and the median income for a family was $30,625. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $15,417 for females. The per capita income for the village was $9,025. There were no families and 3.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 26.7% of those over 64.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jun 30, 2017.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- The Archaeology of the Old Landmark, Mark J. Wagner and Mary R. McCorvie, 1992
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "G001 - Geographic Identifiers - 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Wagner, Mark and Mary McCorvie. "Going to See the Varmint: Piracy in Myth and Reality on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 1785–1830," X Marks the Spot: The Archaeology of Piracy, Univ. Press of Florida, 2006.
- History of Jefferson County, Illinois, Perrins, 1883
- History of Southern Illinois, G.W. Smith, 1912