Walternienburg-Bernburg Culture

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Bernburg Culture
Geographical rangeHarzvorland up to the Thuringian Basin
PeriodLate Neolithic
Dates3100 BC - 2700 BC.
Characteristicsdecorated/undecorated bulbous cups with broad handles, amphorae, storage containers with perforated rims, wave-edged vessels, clay drums

Walternienburg-Bernburger Kultur refers to a mid-neolithic culture which was focused on the area of modern Saxony-Anhalt, the Thuringian Basin and Franconia from 3200 to 2800 BC. It consisted of two regional groups, Walternienburg and Bernburg which interacted closely with each other. Both are named after burial sites in Saxony-Anhalt. Alfred Götze identified the Berburg type in 1892 and the Walternienburg in 1911. Nils Åberg linked them together as the Walternienburg-Bernburg Culture in 1918, as two closely connected or completely co-extensive cultures. This suggestion is no longer valid, however, since the two cultures have clearly distinct funerary and burial practices. The earlier large stone graves attributed to the Walternienburg culture are today assigned to the Tiefstichkeramik culture and the shape of pottery belonging to the Walternienburg culture shows that it was in the Tiefstichkeramik tradition.

Material artifacts[edit]

The Walternienburg group is recognisable by the appearance of sharply articulated handle-cups and hanging vessels with eyelets. The vessels of the Bernburg group on the other hand are rather bulbous, concave, and curved in an 's' shape. The pottery of both groups is decorated with deep incisions, which were partially filled with a white paste and thereby made to stand out. The dominant ceramic forms are decorated and undecorated bulbous handled cups, belly amphorae, funnel beakers and bowls. Clay drums also appear. Especially typical is the presence of double-axes, and slate blades, as well as triangular and trapezoidal flint arrowheads. The group lacks two major types of artefacts which are typical of the funnelbeaker culture: funnelbeakers and collar bottles.

Burials[edit]

The graves take on many forms. Common forms include flat graves, stone cists and stone chamber tombs. Communal burials in Totenhütte are found at Schönstedt and Benzingerode. Rampenkiste and Mauerkammern are also widespread. The skeletal material shows evidence of trepanation.

Relative Quantity[edit]

The 178 excavated graves (Stand 1982) can be divided as follows:

  • 86 (48,3 %): Bernburg Culture
  • 40 (22,5 %): Walternienburg Culture
  • 12 (6,75 %): Walternienburg and Bernburg Culture
  • 34 (19%): Walternienburg-Bernburg Culture
  • 5 (2,75 %): Globular Amphora culture (which is associated with the Bernburg forms)
  • 1 (0,5 %): corded ware culture.

The separation of the Walternienburg-Bernburg culture into two separate cultures in Hesse and along the Havel is apparent in the funerary and burial remains. The graves of the Bernburg culture are in Thuringia and North Harzvorland, while the Walternienburg culture is concentrated in the Havel watershed. In the area around Quedlinburg, in eastern Harzvorland and around Köthen however, a clear mixing of the forms of both cultures can be observed in the inventories of graves.

Settlements[edit]

Village settlements and fortified citadel settlements are widespread. Known citadels with multiple graves are found on the Lang Berg in Dölauer Heide near Halle, the Schalkenburg near Quenstadt and the Steinkuhlenberg near Derenburg.

Economy[edit]

The basis of the economy was agriculture and cattle farming. Emmer, Einkorn, barley and flax were known and grown. They are known to have domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and horses.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Birgitt Berthold: Die Totenhütte von Benzingerode, Halle 2008, ISBN 978-3-939414-12-4
  • Hans-Jürgen Beier: "Die Grab- und Bestattungssitten der Walternienburger und der Bernburger Kultur." Wissenschaftliche Beiträge 1984/30 (L19) of the Martin-Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg ISSN 0440-1298
  • Heinz Knöll "Kragenflaschen Ihre Verbreitung und Ihre Zeitstellung" Europäischen Neolithikum Offa, Vol. 41.
  • Ernst Probst: Deutschland in der Steinzeit, pp. 380–385, München 1991, ISBN 3-572-01058-6
  • Karin Schwertfeger: "Walternienburger Kultur," pp. 195–202. In: H.-J. Beier und R. Einicke (Edd.): Das Neolithikum im Mittelelbe-Saale-Gebiet. Eine Übersicht und ein Abriß zum Stand der Forschung. Verlag Beier & Beran. Wilkau-Hasslau. 1994. ISBN 3-930036-05-3
  • Marcel Torres-Blanco: "Bernburger Kultur," pp. 159–177. In: H.-J. Beier und R. Einicke (Edd.): Das Neolithikum im Mittelelbe-Saale-Gebiet. Eine Übersicht und ein Abriß zum Stand der Forschung. Verlag Beier & Beran. Wilkau-Hasslau. 1994. ISBN 3-930036-05-3