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Walton H. Walker as lieutenant general
|Birth name||Walton Harris Walker|
December 3, 1889|
|Died||December 23, 1950
near Uijeongbu, South Korea
|Place of burial||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1912 – 1950|
|Unit||5th Infantry Division|
|Commands held|| 3rd Armored Division
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross (2)
Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star (3)
Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Air Medal (12)
Army Commendation Medal
|Relations||General Sam S. Walker (son)|
Walton Harris Walker (December 3, 1889 – December 23, 1950) was a United States Army general (promoted posthumously to four-star rank) who was the first commander of the Eighth United States Army in Korea at the beginning of the Korean War. He died in a jeep accident in South Korea on December 23, 1950. Walker also was a commander in World War I and II.
Walker was born in Belton, Texas on December 3, 1889. His parents, Sam and Lydia Walker were both college graduates whose fathers had been officers in the Confederate Army. His father, a merchant, taught him how to ride a horse and to hunt and shoot. He graduated from the Wedemeyer Academy, a school which operated in Belton from 1886 to 1911.
United States Army career
As a lieutenant, he served in the Vera Cruz expedition under Brigadier General Frederick Funston. Patrolling on the U.S.-Mexican border in 1916, he developed a close friendship with Dwight Eisenhower.
World War I
After World War I, Walker rotated through a variety of assignments, including service in China, Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and teaching duties in several posts, including West Point. In the 1930s he served as executive officer of an infantry brigade commanded by George Marshall, the future Army Chief of Staff.
World War II
When hostilities broke out in Europe in 1939, Walker was executive of the War Plans division of the general staff, but when Marshall (now Chief of Staff) assigned George Patton to organize America's armored forces, Walker successfully lobbied Marshall for a post as one of Patton's subordinate commanders, gaining promotion to brigadier general in the process. Promoted to major general in 1942, he commanded Third Armored Division and eventually XX Corps, taking the latter to England in early 1944 and leading it into combat in Normandy in July as part of Patton's Third Army.
Walker's XX Corps played a role in Patton's dash across France in August and early September 1944, earning the sobriquet "Ghost Corps" for the speed of its advance. Walker's troops saw heavy fighting in France and Germany during the remainder of the war, especially at Metz, the Battle of the Bulge, and in the invasion of Germany. In the spring of 1945 XX Corps liberated Buchenwald concentration camp then pushed south and east, eventually reaching Linz, Austria by May. Walker received his third star at this time, making him a Lieutenant-General.
Post-World War II
After the war Walker became commander of Fifth Army, headquartered in Chicago, but in 1948, was assigned as commanding general of the Eighth Army, the American occupation force in Japan. Walker was ordered by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Allied Commander in Japan, to restore the depleted Army to combat-worthy condition.
Shortly after the North Korean invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950, the Eighth Army was ordered to intervene and drive the invaders back across the 38th parallel, the border between the two countries. With only four lightly equipped and poorly trained divisions, Walker began landing troops on the southeast side of the Korean peninsula in July. After his lead units, elements of the 24th Infantry Division (including the ill-fated Task Force Smith), were virtually destroyed in a few days of furious fighting between Osan and Taejon, Walker realized his assigned mission was impossible and went on the defensive. Pushed steadily back towards the southeast by the North Korean advance, Walker's forces suffered heavy losses and for a time were unable to form a defensible front, even after bringing the 1st Cavalry and 25th Infantry Divisions into the fight.
Walker's situation was not helped by unrealistic demands from MacArthur in Tokyo not to retreat an inch. Attempting to obey, Walker gave a bombastic "not a step back" speech to his staff and subordinate commanders which did not go over well. Nor did it stop the North Koreans from pushing back the Americans and the Republic of Korea Army (ROK), which had been badly mauled in the opening days of the invasion, even further.
As American and ROK forces retreated further east and south, they finally arrived at a defensible line on the Nakdong River. They took advantage of shortened supply routes and a relatively good road network to exploit the advantages of "interior lines". Walker was able to quickly shift his units from point to point, stopping North Korean attacks before they could be reinforced. A critical advantage General Walker had was that military intelligence had cracked the North Korean radio codes. So Walker knew every major North Korean Army movement prior to the event. Walker kept his main units deployed on the front lines but he kept Army and Marine units as a mobile reserve and with his ability to read North Korean intentions he could rush in reinforcements to plug any local breaks in the line on short notice. His advance knowledge of enemy movements also allowed him to be able to employ artillery and airpower to great effect. American forces gradually solidified this defensive position on the southeast side of the Korean peninsula, dubbed the "Pusan Perimeter". Walker received reinforcements, including the Provisional Marine Brigade, which he used along with the Army's 27th Infantry Regiment as "fire brigades," reliable troops who specialized in counterattacking and wiping out enemy penetrations.
As more reinforcements arrived, the combat advantage shifted toward the American and South Korean forces. North Korean forces had suffered terribly and their supply lines were under constant aerial bombardment. Almost all of their T-34 tanks, which spearheaded the invasion, had been destroyed. Walker ordered local counterattacks while planning for a large scale breakout in conjunction with MacArthur's Inchon landing in September.
With MacArthur's amphibious flanking move, the North Koreans seemed trapped but Walker's rapid advance northwest towards Inchon and Seoul emphasized speed over maneuver and made no attempt to encircle and destroy the North Koreans after punching through their lines. Although thousands of prisoners were taken, many North Korean units successfully disengaged from the fighting, melting away into the interior of South Korea where they would conduct a guerrilla war for two years. Others escaped all the way back to North Korea.
With the war apparently won, Walker's Eighth Army quickly moved north and, with the independent X Corps on its right, crossed the 38th parallel to occupy North Korea. Fighting tapered off to sporadic, sharp clashes with remnants of North Korean forces. By late October 1950 the Eighth Army was nearing the Yalu River, North Korea's border with China. Walker, informed by MacArthur's headquarters that the Chinese would not intervene, did not insure that his troops maintained watchful security. Due to a lack of coordination between Walker, General Edward Almond, Commander of the X Corps, and MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, a gap had opened between Eighth Army and X Corps as they moved close to the Chinese border. Eventually, the weather had turned savagely cold, and most American units had no training and inadequate equipment for the bitter temperatures.
Contrary to MacArthur's expectations, the Chinese intervened in force; first in a series of ambushes, then in sporadic night attacks, and finally in an all-out offensive in which large Chinese forces infiltrated the lines, taking advantage of the American failure to take basic security measures, and the large intervals between American and South Korean units and between the Eighth Army and the X Corps. From late October until the beginning of December in 1950, the Chinese killed or captured thousands of American and ROK soldiers, decimating the 2nd Infantry Division and forcing Walker into a desperate retreat.
By early December, using his superior mobility Walker successfully broke contact with the Chinese, withdrawing south to a position around Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. Without instructions from MacArthur's headquarters, Walker decided that Eighth Army was too battered to defend Pyongyang and ordered the retreat resumed to below the 38th parallel.
General Walker was killed in a military connected traffic accident on December 23, 1950, near Uijeongbu, South Korea, when his command jeep collided with a civilian truck at high speed as he inspected US military positions north of Seoul.
His body was escorted back to the United States by his son, future US Army General Sam Sims Walker, then a battalion commander with the 19th Infantry Regiment, known as "The Rock of Chickamauga", who was also serving in Korea.
General Walker was interred in Section 34 of Arlington National Cemetery on January 2, 1951.
Source - Official Register of the United States Army. 1946. pg. 713
|No insignia||Cadet, United States Military Academy: June 15, 1907|
|No pin insignia in 1912||Second Lieutenant, Regular Army: June 12, 1912|
|First Lieutenant, Regular Army: July 1, 1916|
|Captain, Regular Army: May 17, 1917|
|Major, National Army: June 7, 1918|
|Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: May 6, 1919|
|Captain, Regular Army: February 12, 1920|
|Major, Regular Army: July 1, 1920|
|Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 1, 1935|
|Colonel, Army of the United States: February 14, 1941|
|Brigadier General, Army of the United States: July 10, 1941|
|Major General, Army of the United States: February 16, 1942|
|Colonel, Regular Army: May 1, 1942|
|Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: April 15, 1945|
Walker's military decorations and awards include:
|Distinguished Service Cross with one oak leaf cluster|
|Distinguished Service Medal with one oak leaf cluster|
|Silver Star with two oak leaf clusters|
|Legion of Merit|
|Distinguished Flying Cross with one oak leaf cluster|
|Air Medal with two silver oak leaf clusters|
|Army Commendation Medal|
- World War I Victory Medal
- Army of Occupation of Germany Medal
- American Defense Service Medal
- American Campaign Medal
- European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
- World War II Victory Medal
- Army of Occupation Medal
- Korean Service Medal
- United Nations Korea Medal
- Korean War Service Medal
Legacy and honors
Promoted posthumously to 4-star General, Walker's memory was much honored in the years immediately following the Korean War. The Army chose his name (and his other nickname), for its next light tank, the M41 Walker Bulldog. Dallas, Texas, named the western segment of Texas State Highway Loop 12 after him (the portion going through neighboring Irving, Texas continues the naming convention). One of the largest Armed Forces Recreation Center's hotels, the General Walker Hotel in Berchtesgaden (now demolished), was also named in his honor. Camp Walker in Daegu, ROK is named in his honor.
The M41 Tank was already nicknamed the Little Bulldog before Gen. Walker's death and Army retained Bulldog as part of the new nickname for the M41 Tank, while dropping the word little.
In 1963, South Korea President Park Chung-hee honored the general by naming a hill in the southern part of Seoul after Walker. Today, Walker Hill is the site of the Sheraton Walker Hill, a five-star international resort and hotel, and Walker Hill Apartment in Gwangjin-Gu. In December 2009, the mayor of Dobong-gu district, Choi Sun-Kil, unveiled the Walton Harris Walker monument to mark the site of his death. The memorial, which is near Dobong subway Station, pays tribute to Walker and to all those who defended South Korea in the Korean War.
A biography of Walker was published in 2008 called "General Walton H. Walker: Forgotten Hero-The Man Who Saved Korea", by Charles M. Province.
Little known but of particular interest to many is the fact that General Walker was of 'mixed ethnicity', most likely including Native American and/or African-American ancestry. (U.S. National Archives document, DCAS,KS.EXT08.DAT)
- "Walker Intermediate School- About Our Namesake". Am.dodea.edu. 1959-12-23. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
- Blair Jr., Clay (2003). The Forgotten War (Reprint ed.). Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-075-7.
- Fehrenbach, T.R. (2001). This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness (50th Anniversary ed.). New York: Macmillan. ISBN 1-57488-334-8.
- Halberstam, David (2007). The Coldest Winter: American and the Korean War. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0052-4.
- Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2002). Encyclopedia of the Korean War: A Political, Social and Military History (New ed.). Santa Barbara: Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-4682-4.
- Monument unveiled for legendary U.S. Army general
- Sandler, Stanley (1995). The Korean War, an Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing=New York. ISBN 0-8240-4445-2.
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