Waltzing Matilda

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Photograph of a swagman, c. 1901

"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's best-known bush ballad, and has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem".[1]

The title was Australian slang for travelling on foot (waltzing, derived from the German auf der Walz) with one's belongings in a "matilda" (swag) slung over one's back.[2] The song narrates the story of an itinerant worker, or "swagman", making a drink of billy tea at a bush camp and capturing a jumbuck (sheep) to eat. When the jumbuck's owner, a squatter (wealthy landowner), and three mounted policemen pursue the swagman, he commits suicide by drowning himself in a nearby billabong (watering hole), after which his ghost haunts the site.

The original lyrics were written in 1895 by Australian poet Banjo Paterson, and were first published as sheet music in 1903. Extensive folklore surrounds the song and the process of its creation, to the extent that it has its own museum, the Waltzing Matilda Centre in Winton, Queensland, where Paterson wrote the lyrics.[3] In 2012, to remind Australians of the song's significance, Winton organised the inaugural Waltzing Matilda Day to be held on 6 April, the anniversary of its first performance.[4][5]

The song was first recorded in 1926 as performed by John Collinson and Russell Callow.[6] In 2008, this recording of "Waltzing Matilda" was added to the Sounds of Australia registry in the National Film and Sound Archive which says that there are more recordings of "Waltzing Matilda" than any other Australian song.[4]

History[edit]

Writing of the song[edit]

The Combo Waterhole, thought to be the location of the story that inspired "Waltzing Matilda"

The Australian poet Banjo Paterson wrote the words to "Waltzing Matilda" in January 1895 while staying at Dagworth Station, a sheep and cattle station near Winton in Central West Queensland owned by the Macpherson family. The words were written to a tune played on a zither or autoharp by 31‑year‑old Christina Macpherson,[7] one of the family members at the station.

Macpherson had heard the tune "The Craigielee March" played by a military band while attending the Warrnambool steeplechase horse racing in Victoria in April 1894, and played it back by ear at Dagworth. Paterson decided that the music would be a good piece to set lyrics to, and produced the original version during the rest of his stay at the station and in Winton.[8][9]

The march was based on the Scottish Celtic folk tune "Thou Bonnie Wood of Craigielea",[8] written by Robert Tannahill and first published in 1806, with James Barr composing the music in 1818.[10] In the early 1890s it was arranged as the "The Craigielee" march music for brass band by Thomas Bulch.[8] This tune, in turn, was possibly based on the old melody of "Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself", composed by John Field (1782–1837) sometime before 1812.[citation needed]

A fortified temporary shearing shed at Dagworth Station following the 1894 arson of the main shed. The three troopers at left are thought to be those referred to in "Waltzing Matilda", while the squatter was Bob Macpherson, fourth from right[8]

It has been widely accepted[11] that "Waltzing Matilda" is probably based on the following story:

In Queensland in 1891 the Great Shearers' Strike brought the colony close to civil war and was broken only after the Premier of Queensland, Samuel Griffith, called in the military. In September 1894, some shearers at Dagworth Station were again on strike. The situation turned violent with the striking shearers firing their rifles and pistols in the air and setting fire to the woolshed at Dagworth, killing dozens of sheep. The owner of Dagworth Station and three policemen gave chase to a man named Samuel Hoffmeister – also known as "French(y)". Rather than be captured, Hoffmeister shot and killed himself at the Combo Waterhole.

Bob Macpherson (the brother of Christina) and Paterson are said to have taken rides together at Dagworth. Here they would probably have passed the Combo Waterhole, where Macpherson is purported to have told this story to Paterson. Although not remaining in close contact, Paterson and Christina Macpherson both maintained this version of events until their deaths. Amongst Macpherson's belongings, found after her death in 1936, was an unopened letter to a music researcher that read "... one day I played (from ear) a tune, which I had heard played by a band at the Races in Warrnambool ... he [Paterson] then said he thought he could write some words to it. He then and there wrote the first verse. We tried it and thought it went well, so he then wrote the other verses." Similarly, in the early 1930s on ABC radio Paterson said "The shearers staged a strike and Macpherson's woolshed at Dagworth was burnt down and a man was picked up dead ... Miss Macpherson used to play a little Scottish tune on a zither and I put words to it and called it "Waltzing Matilda"."[8]

The song itself was first performed on 6 April 1895 by Sir Herbert Ramsay at the North Gregory Hotel in Winton, Queensland. The occasion was a banquet for the Premier of Queensland.

In February 2010 ABC News reported an investigation by barrister Trevor Monti that the death of Hoffmeister was more akin to a gangland assassination than to suicide. The same report asserts "Writer Matthew Richardson says the song was most likely written as a carefully worded political allegory to record and comment on the events of the shearers' strike."[12]

Alternative theories[edit]

A number of alternative theories for the origins or meaning of "Waltzing Matilda" have been proposed since the time it was written; however, most experts now essentially agree on the details outlined above. Some oral stories collected during the twentieth century claimed that Paterson had merely modified a pre-existing bush song, but there is no evidence for this. In 1905 Paterson himself published a book of bush ballads he had collected from around Australia entitled Old Bush Songs, with nothing resembling "Waltzing Matilda" in it. Nor do any other publications or recordings of bush ballads include anything to suggest it pre-dated Paterson. Meanwhile, handwritten manuscripts from the time the song originated indicate the song's origins with Paterson and Christina Macpherson, as do their own recollections and other pieces of evidence.[8]

There has been speculation[13] about the relationship "Waltzing Matilda" bears to an English song, "The Bold Fusilier" (also known as "Marching through Rochester", referring to Rochester in Kent and the Duke of Marlborough), a song sung to the same tune and dated by some back to the 18th century but first printed in 1900.[14] There is, however, no documentary proof that "The Bold Fusilier" existed before 1900, and evidence suggests that this song was in fact written as a parody of "Waltzing Matilda" by English soldiers during the Boer War where Australian soldiers are known to have sung "Waltzing Matilda" as a theme.[8] The first verse of "The Bold Fusilier" is:

A bold fusilier came marching back through Rochester
Off from the wars in the north country,
And he sang as he marched
Through the crowded streets of Rochester,
Who'll be a soldier for Marlboro and me?

In 2008 amateur Australian historian Peter Forrest claimed that the widespread belief that Paterson had penned the ballad as a socialist anthem, inspired by the Great Shearers' Strike, was false and a "misappropriation" by political groups.[15] Forrest asserted that Paterson had in fact written the self-described "ditty" as part of his flirtation with Macpherson, despite his engagement to someone else.[16] This theory was not shared by other historians like Ross Fitzgerald, emeritus professor in history and politics at Griffith University, who argued that the defeat of the strike in the area that Paterson was visiting only several months before the song's creation would have been in his mind, most likely consciously but at least "unconsciously", and thus was likely to have been an inspiration for the song.[16] Fitzgerald stated, "the two things aren't mutually exclusive"[16]—a view shared by others who, while not denying the significance of Paterson's relationship with Macpherson, nonetheless recognise the underlying story of the shearers' strike and Hoffmeister's death in the lyrics of the song.[8]

Ownership[edit]

In 1903 Marie Cowan was hired to alter the song lyrics for use as an advertising jingle for Billy Tea, making it nationally famous.[17] A third variation on the song, with a slightly different chorus, was published in 1907. Paterson sold the rights to "Waltzing Matilda" and "some other pieces" to Angus & Robertson Publishers for five pounds (the currency of the time).

The song was copyrighted by an American publisher, Carl Fischer Music, in 1941 as an original composition. Although no copyright applied to the song in Australia and many other countries, the Australian Olympic organisers had to pay royalties to Carl Fischer Music following the song being played at the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta.[18][19] Arrangements such as those claimed by Richard D. Magoffin remain in copyright in America.[20]

Lyrics[edit]

Typical lyrics[edit]

There are no "official" lyrics to "Waltzing Matilda" and slight variations can be found in different sources.[21] This version incorporates the famous "You'll never catch me alive said he" variation introduced by the Billy Tea company.[17] Paterson's original lyrics referred to "drowning himself 'neath the coolibah tree".[22] These are the lyrics written in 1903 by Marie Cowan to advertise Billy Tea.

The original manuscript of "Waltzing Matilda", transcribed by Christina Macpherson c. 1895

Once a jolly swagman camped by a billabong
Under the shade of a coolibah tree,
And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled:
"Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me?"

Chorus:
Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me
And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Down came a jumbuck to drink at that billabong.
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee.
And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

(Chorus)

Up rode the squatter, mounted on his thoroughbred.
Down came the troopers, one, two, and three.
"Whose[N 1] is that [N 2] jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag?
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

(Chorus)

Up jumped the swagman and sprang into the billabong.
"You'll never take me alive!" said he
And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong:
"Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me?"

(Chorus)

  1. ^ sometimes "Where's"
  2. ^ sometimes "Who's the jolly"

Glossary[edit]

The lyrics contain many distinctively Australian English words, some now rarely used outside of the song. These include:

waltzing 
derived from the German term auf der Walz, which means to travel while working as a craftsman and learn new techniques from other masters.
Matilda 
a romantic term for a swagman's bundle. See below, "Waltzing Matilda".
Waltzing Matilda 
from the above terms, "to waltz Matilda" is to travel with a swag, that is, with all one's belongings on one's back wrapped in a blanket or cloth. The exact origins of the term "Matilda" are disputed; one fanciful derivation states that when swagmen met each other at their gatherings, there were rarely women to dance with. Nonetheless, they enjoyed a dance and so danced with their swags, which was given a woman's name. However, this appears to be influenced by the word "waltz", hence the introduction of dancing. It seems more likely that, as a swagman's only companion, the swag came to be personified as a woman.
The National Library of Australia states:
Matilda is an old Teutonic female name meaning "mighty battle maid". This may have informed the use of "Matilda" as a slang term to mean a de facto wife who accompanied a wanderer. In the Australian bush a man's swag was regarded as a sleeping partner, hence his "Matilda". (Letter to Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Churchill, KG from Harry Hastings Pearce, 19 February 1958. Harry Pearce Papers, NLA Manuscript Collection, MS2765)[23]
swagman 
a man who travelled the country looking for work. The swagman's "swag" was a bed roll that bundled his belongings.
billabong 
an oxbow lake (a cut-off river bend) found alongside a meandering river
coolibah tree 
a kind of eucalyptus tree which grows near billabongs
jumbuck 
a sheep[23]
billy 
a can for boiling water in, usually 1–1.5 litres (2–3 pints)
tucker bag 
a bag for carrying food
troopers 
policemen
squatter 
Australian squatters started as early farmers who raised livestock on land which they did not legally have the legal title to use; in many cases they later gained legal use of the land even though they did not have full possession, and became wealthy thanks to these large land holdings. The squatter's claim to the land may be as uncertain as the swagman's claim to the jumbuck.

Variations[edit]

The lyrics of "Waltzing Matilda" have been changed since it was written.

In a facsimile of the first part of the original manuscript, included in Singer of the Bush, a collection of Paterson's works published by Lansdowne Press in 1983, the first two verses appear as follows:

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabong,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree,
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Chorus:
Who'll come a waltzin' Matilda my darling,
Who'll come a waltzin' Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the water hole,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him in glee,
And he sang as he put him away in the tucker bag,
You'll come a waltzin' Matilda with me.

Chorus:
You'll come a waltzing Matilda my darling,
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag,
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.

Some corrections in the manuscript are evident; the verses originally read (differences in italics):

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabong,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree,
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling,
Who'll come a roving Australia with me?

Chorus:
Who'll come a rovin (rest missing)
Who'll come a waltzin' Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a tucker bag.
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

It has been suggested that these changes were from an even earlier version, and that Paterson was talked out of using this text, but the manuscript does not bear this out. In particular, the first line of the chorus was corrected before it had been finished, so the original version is incomplete.

The first published version, in 1903, differs slightly from this text:

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabongs,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree,
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling,
"Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?"

Chorus:
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda, my darling,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the waterhole,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him in glee,
And he sang as he put him away in the tucker-bag,
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.

(Chorus)

Up came the squatter a-riding his thoroughbred,
Up rose the troopers—one, two, a and three.
"Whose the jolly jumbuck you've got in the tucker-bag?
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with we."

(Chorus)

Up sprang the swagman and jumped in the waterhole,
Drowning himself by the Coolibah tree.
And his voice can be heard as it sings in the billabongs,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.

(Chorus)

By contrast with the original, and also with subsequent versions, the chorus of all the verses was the same in this version. This is also apparently the only version that uses "billabongs" instead of "billabong".

Current variations of the third line of the first verse are "And he sang as he sat and waited by the billabong" or "And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled". Another variation is that the third line of each chorus is kept unchanged from the first chorus, or is changed to the third line of the preceding verse.

There is also the very popular so-called Queensland version[24][25] that has a different chorus, one very similar to that used by Paterson:

Oh there once was a swagman camped in a billabong
Under the shade of the coolibah tree
And he sang as he looked at his old billy boiling
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Chorus:
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda my darling?
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the water hole
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee
And he sang as he stowed him away in his tucker bag
You'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me

(Chorus)

Down came the squatter a'riding his thoroughbred
Down came policemen one two three
Whose is the jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag?
You'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me

(Chorus)

But the swagman he up and he jumped in the water hole
Drowning himself by the coolibah tree
And his ghost may be heard as it sings in the billabong
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me?

(Chorus)

Status[edit]

Waltzing Matilda mural on the side of an Ansett Boeing 737-300 in the mid-1990s

In May 1988 the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA) Chief Executive, John Sturman, presented five platinum awards, "which recognised writers who had created enduring works which have become a major part of the Australian culture", at the annual APRA Awards ceremony as part of their celebrations for the Australian Bicentenary.[26] One of the platinum awards was for Paterson and Cowan's version of "Waltzing Matilda".[26][27]

Official use[edit]

The song has never been the officially recognised national anthem in Australia. Unofficially, however, it is often used in similar circumstances. The song was one of four included in a national plebiscite to choose Australia's national song held on 21 May 1977 by the Fraser Government to determine which song was preferred as Australia's national anthem. "Waltzing Matilda" received 28% of the vote compared with 43% for "Advance Australia Fair", 19% for "God Save the Queen" and 10% for "Song of Australia".[28]

Australian passports issued from 2003 have had the lyrics of "Waltzing Matilda" hidden microscopically in the background pattern of most of the pages for visas and arrival/departure stamps.[29]

Sports[edit]

"Waltzing Matilda" was used at the 1974 FIFA World Cup and at the Montreal Olympic Games in 1976 and, as a response to the New Zealand All Blacks haka, it has gained popularity as a sporting anthem for the Australia national rugby union team. It is also performed, along with "Advance Australia Fair", at the annual AFL Grand Final.

Matilda the Kangaroo was the mascot at the 1982 Commonwealth Games held in Brisbane, Queensland. Matilda was a cartoon kangaroo, who appeared as a 13-metre (43 ft) high mechanical kangaroo at the opening ceremony,[30] accompanied by Rolf Harris singing "Waltzing Matilda".

The Australian women's national soccer team is nicknamed the Matildas after this song.[31]

Military units[edit]

It is used as the quick march of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment and as the official song of the US 1st Marine Division, commemorating the time the unit spent in Australia during the Second World War.[32][33] Partly also used in the British Royal Tank Regiment's slow march of "Royal Tank Regiment", because an early British tank model was called "Matilda".

Covers and derivative works[edit]

"Waltzing Matilda" has been recorded by many Australian musicians and singers, including John Williamson, Peter Dawson, John Schumann, the Seekers, Thomas Edmonds, Rolf Harris, the Wiggles. Bands and artists from other nations, including Helmut Lotti, Wilf Carter (Montana Slim), the Irish Rovers, Burl Ives,[34] the Swingle Singers and the Red Army Choir have also recorded the song. According to the National Film and Sound Archive it has been recorded over 600 times. In 1983 the late country-and-western singer Slim Dusty's rendition became the first song to be broadcast to Earth by astronauts.[35]

Jimmie Rodgers had a US#41 pop hit with the song in 1959.[36]

Film[edit]

Versions of the song have been featured in a number of mainly Australian movies and television programs.

The song is featured in the American movies The Desert Rats (film) (1953) and On the Beach (1959 film), the latter directed by Stanley Kramer and based on the novel by Nevil Shute.

Sport[edit]

"Waltzing Matilda" is a fixture at many Australian sporting events. Jessica Mauboy and Stan Walker recorded a version of "Waltzing Matilda" to promote the 2012 Summer Olympics in Australia. It was released as a single on 3 August 2012.[37][38]

Stage[edit]

On the occasion of Queensland's 150-year celebrations in 2009, Opera Queensland produced the revue Waltzing Our Matilda, staged at the Conservatorium Theatre and subsequently touring twelve regional centres in Queensland.[39] The show was created by Jason and Leisa Barry-Smith and Narelle French.[40] The story line used the fictional process of Banjo Paterson writing the poem when he visited Queensland in 1895 to present episodes of four famous Australians: bass-baritone Peter Dawson (1882–1961), soprano Dame Nellie Melba (1861–1931), Bundaberg-born tenor Donald Smith (1922–1998), and soprano Gladys Moncrieff, also from Bundaberg. The performers were Jason Barry-Smith as Banjo Paterson, Guy Booth as Dawson, David Kidd as Smith, Emily Burke as Melba, Zoe Traylor as Moncrieff, and Donna Balson (piano, voice).[41]

Derivative musical works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Who'll Come A Waltzing Matilda With Me?". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Draft Revision March 2001. "Matilda, n."
  3. ^ "Waltzing Matilda Centre". Matildacentre.com.au. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  4. ^ a b Arthur, Chrissy (6 April 2012). "Outback town holds first Waltzing Matilda Day". ABC News. 
  5. ^ "Waltzing Matilda Day". Waltzing Matilda Centre, Winton. 
  6. ^ "National Film and Sound Archive: Waltzing Matilda on australianscreen online". Aso.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  7. ^ Ponnamperuma, Senani. "Waltzing Matilda Australia's Favourite Song". 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h O'Keeffe, Dennis (2012). Waltzing Matilda: The Secret History of Australia's Favourite Song. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74237-706-3. 
  9. ^ National Library of Australia, Robyn Holmes (2011-06-07). "National Library of Australia history". Nla.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  10. ^ Semple, David. "The Poems and Songs of Robert Tannahill: Songs – Bonnie Wood O Craigielee". Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
  11. ^ National Library of Australia, Robyn Holmes (2011-06-07). "National Library of Australia "The Creation"". Nla.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  12. ^ "Waltzing Matilda an old cold case". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 February 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
  13. ^ National Library of Australia, Robyn Holmes (2011-06-01). "National Library of Australia "The Bold Fusilier"". Nla.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  14. ^ The Times, 15 September 2003, "Sporting anthems", Section: Features; p. 17.
  15. ^ "Waltzing Matilda" 'not socialist', BBC News, 5 May 2008
  16. ^ a b c "Waltzing Maltida" a little ditty, historians say, ABC News, 5 May 2008
  17. ^ a b Safran, John (20 December 2002). ""Waltzing Matilda", courtesy of a tea-leaf near you". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  18. ^ Clarke, Roger (2001). "Copyright in "Waltzing Matilda"". Roger Clarke's "Waltzing Matilda" site. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. The copyright has presumably expired in Australia (and in almost every other country in the world), because in most Western countries copyright lasts for only 50 years after the death of the originator. Carl Fischer Musics' copyright hold is due to end in 2011. Banjo Paterson died in 1941 and Marie Cowan in 1919, so these copyrights ought to have expired in 1991 and 1969 respectively. In the United States other rules hold and copyright for the song still appears to exist. It is claimed by Carl Fischer New York Inc. 
  19. ^ Pollack, Michael (25 January 2001). "Screen Grab; Tale of the Jumbuck and the Billabong, Interpreted". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ "WebVoyage Record View 1". Cocatalog.loc.gov. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  21. ^ For instance, compare the lyrics at the NLA to the ANU Archived 9 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ "A Popular Bush Song". The Capricornian (1875–1929). Rockhampton, Queensland: National Library of Australia. 14 December 1901. p. 8. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  23. ^ a b Glossary, National Library of Australia, archived from the original on 2011-06-14 
  24. ^ "Who'll come a Waltzing Matilda with me?". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 2011-04-01. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  25. ^ ""Waltzing Matilda" – Lyrics, midi, history". Chinarice.org. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  26. ^ a b Watt, Ian (19 May 1988). "They write the songs that make the whole world sing". The Canberra Times. 62 (19,218). p. 26. Retrieved 10 July 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  27. ^ "1988 APRA Music Award Winners". Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA). Retrieved 10 July 2016. 
  28. ^ "Plebiscite results – see 1977 National Song Poll". Elections and referendums. Department of the Parliament (Australian federal government). 2002. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2007. 
  29. ^ "Passport gets the hop on fraudsters". Archived from the original on 7 December 2003. 
  30. ^ "A word to the wise guy – Sport". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 April 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  31. ^ Independent Online (27 October 2007). "News – SA Soccer: If a name works, why fix it?". Iol.co.za. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  32. ^ "1st Marine Division celebrates 65 years". US Fed News Service, Including US State News. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008. Major Gen. Richard F. Natonski and Sgt. Maj. Wayne R. Bell cut the ribbon to the "Waltzing Matilda", the 1st Marine Division's official song. 
  33. ^ Clarke, Roger (2003). "Roger Clarke's "Waltzing Matilda" Home-Page". Roger Clarke (hosted on ANU computers). Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008. I understand that the tune (without the words) is the marching song of the US 1st Marine Division. In 2003, Col Pat Garrett USMC confirmed that it was/is played every morning immediately after The Marines Hymn ('From the Halls of Montezuma ...') following the raising of the National colo(u)rs at 0800, and at Divisional parades. Further, "The Division was raised at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in early 1941, and became associated with "Waltzing Matilda" when the Marines came to Melbourne in early 1943 for rest and refit following the successful retaking of Guadalcanal, and before it returned to combat at Cape Gloucester in New Britain in the Northern Solomons in September of that year" 
  34. ^ Allmusic.com: Burl Ives, Waltzing Matilda
  35. ^ "iconic Banjo Paterson bush ballads". Australian Geographic. 2014-02-17. Retrieved 2015-11-18. 
  36. ^ Billboard Hot 100: February 15, 1960
  37. ^ "Stan Walker and Jessica Mauboy to Release New Collaboration Together For The Olympics". Take 40 Australia, MCM Entertainment. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  38. ^ "iTunes – Music – Waltzing Matilda – Single by Jessica Mauboy & Stan Walker". iTunes Store (Australia). Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  39. ^ Waltzing Our Matilda– Tour dates Archived 19 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ Waltzing Our Matilda at Opera Queensland Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  41. ^ Waltzing Our Matilda – Artists[dead link]
  42. ^ Griffith, Tony (2005). "Chapter 4: Beating the Bolshoi". Beautiful Lies: Australia from Menzies to Howard. Australia: Wakefield Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 1-86254-590-1. 
  43. ^ Bebbington, Warren (1997). The Oxford Companion to Australian Music. Oxford University Press. pp. 427–428. 
  44. ^ Casimir, Jon (20 April 2002). "Secret life of Matilda". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  45. ^ "Rambling Syd's Ganderbag". Freespace.virgin.net. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  46. ^ Mossman, Tam. (1983). The Family Car Song Book. Philadelphia: Running Press.
  47. ^ Humphries, Patrick (2007). The Many Lives of Tom Waits. p. 91

External links[edit]