War Production Board
The War Production Board (WPB) was an agency of the United States government that supervised war production during World War II. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established it on January 16, 1942, with Executive Order 9024. The WPB replaced the Supply Priorities and Allocation Board and the Office of Production Management.
The WPB directed conversion of industries from peacetime work to war needs, allocated scarce materials, established priorities in the distribution of materials and services, and prohibited nonessential production. It rationed such commodities as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, paper and plastics. It was dissolved shortly after the defeat of Japan in 1945, and was replaced by the Civilian Production Administration in late 1945.
In 1942-45, WPB supervised the production of $183 billion worth of weapons and supplies, about 40% of the world output of munitions. Britain, the USSR and other allies produced an addition 30%, while the Axis produced only 30%. One fourth of the US output was warplanes; one fourth was warships. Meanwhile, the civilian standard of living was about level.
The national WPB constituted the chair, the Secretaries of War, Navy, and Agriculture, the lieutenant general in charge of War Department procurement, the director of the Office of Price Administration, the Federal Loan Administrator, the chair of the Board of Economic Warfare, and the special assistant to the President for the defense aid program. The WPB had advisory, policy-making, and progress-reporting divisions.
The WPB managed twelve regional offices, and operated one hundred twenty field offices throughout the nation. They worked alongside state war production boards, which maintained records on state war production facilities and also helped state businesses obtain war contracts and loans.
The national WPB's primary task was converting civilian industry to war production. The WPB assigned priorities and allocated scarce materials such as steel, aluminum, and rubber, prohibited nonessential industrial production such as nylons and refrigerators, controlled wages and prices, and mobilized the people through patriotic propaganda such as "give your scrap metal and help Oklahoma boys save our way of life." It initiated events such as scrap metal drives, which were carried out locally to great success. For example, a national scrap metal drive in October 1942 resulted in an average of almost eighty-two pounds of scrap per American.
The WPB and the nation's factories effected a great turnaround. Military aircraft production, which totaled 6,000 in 1940, jumped to 85,000 in 1943. Factories that made silk ribbons now produced parachutes, automobile factories built tanks, typewriter companies converted to machine guns, undergarment manufacturers sewed mosquito netting, and a roller coaster manufacturer converted to the production of bomber repair platforms. The WPB ensured that each factory received the materials it needed to produce the most war goods in the shortest time.
Without American production the Allies could never have won the war.
From 1942 to 1945 the WPB directed a total production of $185 billion worth of armaments and supplies. At war's end, most production restrictions were quickly lifted, and the WPB was abolished on November 3, 1945, with its remaining functions transferred to the Civilian Production Administration.
In 1943, the WPB hired Harvard Business School Professor Thomas North Whitehead to tour the nation and find out how Americans were reacting to rationing and controls. Whitehead reported that "the good temper and common sense of most people under restrictions and vexations was really impressive... My own observation is that most people are behaving like patriotic, loyal citizens."
- William Beverly Murphy, president and CEO of Campbell Soup Company
- Charles E. Wilson, President of General Electric
- T. S. Fitch, President and CEO of Washington Steel Corporation
- Faustin Johnson Solon, a chairman of the War Production Board, representing Owens-Illinois Glass Company
- Irving Brown, representing the American Federation of Labor
Civilian Production Administration
Executive Order 9638 created the Civilian Production Administration and terminated the War Production Board on October 4, 1945. The Civilian Production Board was consolidated with other agencies to form the Office of Temporary Controls—an agency in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President. The latter had previously been established pursuant to the Reorganization Act of 1939, 53 Stat. 561. The Executive Order provided a Temporary Controls Administrator, appointed by the President, to head the Office of Temporary Controls and vested in him, among other things, the functions of the Price Administrator.
- Board of Economic Warfare
- Combined Food Board, with Britain and Canada
- Combined Munitions Assignments Board, the most important board
- Combined Production and Resources Board
- Combined Raw Materials Board
- National War Labor Board
- War Manpower Commission
- Office of Price Administration
- Office of War Mobilization
- Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 164-5, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
- Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 164-5, 193-4, 197-9, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
- "War and the book trade" In Butler, Pierce (ed.) (1945) Books and libraries in wartime pp. 88-104, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, OCLC 1349001
- Bureau of Demobilization, United States. Civilian Production Administration. Industrial mobilization for war: history of the War Industrial Mobilization for War: History of the War Production Board and Predecessor Agencies: 1940-1945 (1947) pp 961-62
- Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 80, 164-5, 194-9, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
- War Production Board
- One War Won, TIME, December 13, 1943
- Fowler, Glen (11 February 1989). "Irving Brown, 77, U.S. Specialist On International Labor Movement". New York Times. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Federal Register page and date: 10 FR 12591, October 6, 1945 Amends: EO 9024, January 16, 1942
- Office of Temporary Controls, Office for Emergency Management, Executive Order 9809, December 12, 1946
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to War Production Board.|
- Studies in industrial price control by United States Office of Temporary Controls. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1947
- Problems in price control: legal phases by United States Office of Temporary Controls. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1947
- Problems in price control by United States Office of Temporary Controls. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1948
- The beginnings of OPA by United States Office of Temporary Controls. Office of Temporary Controls, Office of Price Administration, 1947
- Guaranteed wages by United States Office of Temporary Controls. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1947
- Bureau of Demobilization, United States. Civilian Production Administration. Industrial Mobilization for War: History of the War Production Board and Predecessor Agencies: 1940-1945 (1947)
- Catton, Bruce (1899-1978). The War Lords of Washington. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & Co., 1948.